Abstract2p15p16.1 microdeletion syndrome is a recently recognized congenital disorder characterized by developmental delay and dysmorphic features. RP2-associated retinal disorder (RP2-RD) is an X-linked inherited retinal disease with a childhood onset caused by a loss-of-function variant in the RP2 gene. Here, we describe a 14-year-old boy with double diagnoses of 2p15p16.1 microdeletion syndrome and RP2-RD. The recurrence risk of each condition and the indication for potential therapeutic options for RP2-RD are discussed.
Functional assessments are a fundamental part of the clinical evaluation of patients with inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). Their importance and impact have become increasingly notable, given the significant breadth and number of clinical trials and studies investigating multiple avenues of intervention across a wide range of IRDs, including gene, pharmacological and cellular therapies. Moreover, the fact that many clinical trials are reporting improvements in vision, rather than the previously anticipated structural stability/slowing of degeneration, makes functional evaluation of primary relevance. In this review, we will describe a range of methods employed to characterise retinal function and functional vision, beginning with tests variably included in the clinic, such as visual acuity, electrophysiological assessment and colour discrimination, and then discussing assessments often reserved for clinical trials/research studies such as photoaversion testing, full-field static perimetry and microperimetry, and vision-guided mobility testing; addressing perimetry in greatest detail, given it is commonly a primary outcome metric. We will focus on how these tests can help diagnose and monitor particular genotypes, also noting their limitations/challenges and exploring analytical methodologies for better exploiting functional measurements, as well as how they facilitate patient inclusion and stratification in clinical trials and serve as outcome measures.
AimTo investigate effect of patient age, gender, comorbidities and surgeon on refractive outcomes following cataract surgery.MethodsStudy population: patients on UK national ophthalmic cataract database on cataract operations undertaken between 1 April 2010 and 31 August 2018. Variables examined included gender, age, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, high myopia, inherited retinal disease, optic nerve disease, uveitis, pseudoexfoliation, vitreous opacities, retinal pathology, cataract type, previous surgery and posterior capsular rupture. A multivariate normal cross-classified model was fitted to the refractive outcome using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods with diffuse priors to approximate maximum likelihood estimation. A MCMC chain was generated with a burn-in of 5000 iterations and a monitoring chain of 50 000 iterations.Results490 987 cataract operations were performed on 351 864 patients by 2567 surgeons. Myopic and astigmatic errors were associated with posterior capsule rupture (−0.38/+0.04×72), glaucoma (−0.10/+0.05×95), previous vitrectomy (−0.049/+0.03×66) and high myopia (−0.07/+0.03×57). Hyperopic and astigmatic errors were associated with diabetic retinopathy (+0.08/+0.03×104), pseudoexfoliation (+0.07/+0.01×158), male gender (+0.12/+0.05×91) and age (−0.01/+0.06×97 per increasing decade). Inherited retinal disease, optic nerve disease, previous trabeculectomy, uveitis, brunescent/white cataract had no significant impact on the error of the refractive outcome. The effect of patient gender and comorbidity was additive. Surgeons only accounted for 4% of the unexplained variance in refractive outcome.ConclusionPatient comorbidities and gender account for small but statistically significant differences in refractive outcome, which are additive. Surgeon effects are very small.
AbstractExome-based testing for genetic diseases can reveal unsolicited findings (UFs), i.e. predispositions for diseases that exceed the diagnostic question. Knowledge of patients’ interpretation of possible UFs and of motives for (not) wanting to know UFs is still limited. This lacking knowledge may impede effective counselling that meets patients’ needs. Therefore, this article examines the meaning of UFs from a patient perspective. A qualitative study was conducted and an interpretative phenomenological analysis was made of 14 interviews with patients with an inherited retinal disease. Patients assign a complex meaning to UFs, including three main components. The first component focuses on result-specific qualities, i.e. the characteristics of an UF (inclusive of actionability, penetrance, severity and age of onset) and the consequences of disclosure; the second component applies to a patient’s lived illness experiences and to the way these contrast with reflections on presymptomatic UFs; the third component addresses a patient’s family embedding and its effect on concerns about disease prognosis and genetic information’s family relevance. The complex meaning structure of UFs suggests the need for counselling procedures that transcend a strictly clinical approach. Counselling should be personalised and consider patients’ lived illness experiences and family context.
Achromatopsia (ACHM) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited retinal disease characterized by congenital photophobia, nystagmus, low visual acuity, and absence of color vision. ACHM is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by biallelic mutations in the genes CNGA3, CNGB3, GNAT2, PDE6C, PDE6H, or ATF6. We undertook molecular genetic analysis in a single female patient with a clinical diagnosis of ACHM and identified the homozygous variant c.778G>C;p.(D260H) in the CNGA3 gene. While segregation analysis in the father, as expected, identified the CNGA3 variant in a heterozygous state, it could not be displayed in the mother. Microsatellite marker analysis provided evidence that the homozygosity of the CNGA3 variant is due to partial or complete paternal uniparental isodisomy (UPD) of chromosome 2 in the patient. Apart from the ACHM phenotype, the patient was clinically unsuspicious and healthy. This is one of few examples proving UPD as the underlying mechanism for the clinical manifestation of a recessive mutation in a patient with inherited retinal disease. It also highlights the importance of segregation analysis in both parents of a given patient or especially in cases of homozygous recessive mutations, as UPD has significant implications for genetic counseling with a very low recurrence risk assessment in such families.
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal disease, affecting >20 million people worldwide. Loss of daylight vision typically occurs due to the dysfunction/loss of cone photoreceptors, the cell type that initiates our color and high acuity vision. Currently, there is no effective treatment for RP, other than gene therapy for a limited number of specific disease genes. To develop a disease gene-agnostic therapy, we screened 20 genes for their ability to prolong cone photoreceptor survival in vivo. Here, we report an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing Txnip, which prolongs the survival of cone photoreceptors and improves visual acuity in RP mouse models. A Txnip allele, C247S, which blocks the association of Txnip with thioredoxin, provides an even greater benefit. Additionally, the rescue effect of Txnip depends on lactate dehydrogenase b (Ldhb), and correlates with the presence of healthier mitochondria, suggesting that Txnip saves RP cones by enhancing their lactate catabolism.