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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

2050-7283, 2050-7283
Updated Saturday, 23 October 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chadia Haddad ◽  
Sandrella Bou Malhab ◽  
Diana Malaeb ◽  
Hala Sacre ◽  
Danielle Saadeh ◽  
...  

Abstract Introduction Stigma develops during outbreaks such as the COVID-19 pandemic due to the human fear that arises from the anxiety about a disease of an unknown etiology, with the associated detrimental consequences on both the individual and society. This study was conducted to assess if knowledge about COVID-19, attitude, practice and behavior regarding preventive measures against COVID-19, fear, and anxiety towards COVID-19 will affect the level of stigma and evaluate the mediating effect of fear, anxiety, and diagnosis of COVID-19 on stigma. Methods A cross-sectional online survey conducted between December 20, 2020, and January 05, 2021, enrolled 405 participants recruited from the Lebanese population. Two scales were created and adapted to the Lebanese context to measure the current stigma (stigma discrimination scale, self-stigma scale) toward COVID-19. Results More than half of the sample had moderate to severe stigma discrimination (62%) and self-stigma (65.9%). The multivariable analysis showed that higher fear of COVID-19 scale (Beta = .143) was significantly associated with a higher stigma discrimination scale. Whereas, higher knowledge score (Beta =  −.153) was significantly associated with a lower stigma discrimination scale. Fear of COVID-19, anxiety from COVID-19, being diagnosed with COVID-19, and having a family member with COVID-19 partially mediated the association between knowledge and stigma discrimination scale. No mediation effect of fear and anxiety scale was found between the knowledge and self-stigma score. Conclusion Our main findings indicate that a considerable proportion of the Lebanese population has stigma discrimination behaviors toward COVID-19 patients and that those who were infected with the virus experienced COVID-19-related stigmatization.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Natasha Clarke ◽  
Emily Pechey ◽  
Rachel Pechey ◽  
Minna Ventsel ◽  
Eleni Mantzari ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The physical properties of tableware could influence selection and consumption of food and alcohol. There is considerable uncertainty, however, around the potential effects of different sizes and shapes of tableware on how much food and alcohol people self-serve. These studies aimed to estimate the impact of: 1. Plate size and shape on amount of food self-served; 2.Wine glass and bottle size on amount of wine self-poured. Methods 140 adults participated in two laboratory studies—each using randomised within-subjects factorial designs—where they self-served food (Study 1) and wine (Study 2): Study 1: 3 plate sizes (small; medium; large) × 2 plate shapes (circular; square). Study 2: 3 wine glass sizes (small; medium; large) × 2 wine bottle sizes (75 cl; 50 cl). Results Study 1: There was a main effect of plate size: less was self-served on small (76 g less, p < 0.001) and medium (41 g less, p < 0.001) plates, compared to large plates. There was no evidence for a main effect of plate shape (p = 0.46) or a size and shape interaction (p = 0.47). Study 2: There was a main effect of glass size: less was self-served in small (34 ml less, p < 0.001) and medium (17 ml less, p < 0.001) glasses, compared to large glasses. There was no evidence of a main effect of bottle size (p = 0.20) or a glass and bottle size interaction (p = 0.18). Conclusions Smaller tableware (i.e. plates and wine glasses) decreases the amount of food and wine self-served in an initial serving. Future studies are required to generate estimates on selection and consumption in real world settings when numerous servings are possible. Protocol registration information: OSF (https://osf.io/dj3c6/) and ISRCTN (10.1186/ISRCTN66774780).


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Milad Abbasi ◽  
Mohsen Falahati ◽  
Masoumeh Kaydani ◽  
Rohollah Fallah Madvari ◽  
Ahmad Mehri ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Various agents such as psychosocial items and accident proneness can affect cognitive failures through different paths. The probable paths are the direct effects of workplace psychosocial items on cognitive failures and their indirect effects on cognitive failures through the mediator variable of accident proneness, which has not yet been studied by others. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate these paths. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 164 male employees of Karoon Sugar Company in 2018. The participants were asked to complete a background and demographic questionnaire, Broadbent cognitive failures scale, accident proneness questionnaire, and Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire. Obtained data were analyzed and modeled using the statistical descriptive method, ANOVA, independent t-test, Pearson correlation test, and path analysis in the SPSS and AMOS software. Results The results of the path analysis showed that, not only, some psychosocial risk items had a significant direct effect on cognitive failures, but also, they could affect cognitive failures through the accident proneness, indirectly. Work-family conflict and social support from supervisors by coefficients of 0.188 and – 0.187 had the highest direct effects, respectively. The highest indirect effects belonged to justice and respect, and work-family conflict by coefficients of - 0.220 and 0.199, respectively. The highest total effects were also related to the work-family conflict and justice and respect by coefficients of 0.387 and – 0.381, respectively. Conclusions In total, our results showed that some psychological items could, directly and indirectly, increase cognitive failure through accident proneness.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rosa Isabel Rodrigues

Abstract Background In the last two decades, the transformations that have affected the business world have had a great impact on professional performance standards. As such, they have contributed significantly to increasing concerns regarding employability. Particularly, these concerns are even more worrying among students who are looking for their first job. Consequently, this leads organizations to question whether the skills these candidates have are sufficient and adequate for them to enter the job market. Although it is a problem that deserves an urgent response, it is still poorly understood amongst academics, which is why it continues to be essential to define and signal which skills candidates should develop in order to guarantee a better person-function fit. Hereupon, the present study aims at the construction and validation of a short skills inventory for students who are looking for their first job. This inventory will allow alignment between candidates' skills and the level of performance expected by their future employers. Methods The development of the short skills inventory for students looking for their first job was based on Classical test theory and Item response theory methodologies. Specifically, its developmental process encompassed three studies. Study 1, comprising a qualitative scope, dealt with the development and construction of the items (n = 97). Study 2, of an exploratory nature, was intended to evaluate the psychometric properties of the instrument (n = 173). Finally, Study 3, of a confirmatory nature, was aimed at validating the results gathered from the Exploratory factor analysis (n = 407). Results This inventory is a valuable asset for the selection of students who are looking for their first job. The analyzes carried out over the various studies show that this instrument has satisfactory psychometric properties, and, as such, is a valid and reliable instrument and an alternative to the instruments currently used in the recruitment and selection processes. Conclusions The construction of this short skills inventory brings theoretical and practical benefits. In short, it contributes to reducing Portugal’s gap regarding psychological assessment upon selection considering the lack of validated and verified instruments for students looking for their first job.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Timea Mariann Helter ◽  
Ildiko Kovacs ◽  
Andor Kanka ◽  
Orsolya Varga ◽  
Janos Kalman ◽  
...  

Abstract Background A link between mental health and freedom of choice has long been established, in fact, the loss of freedom of choice is one of the possible defining features of mental disorders. Freedom of choice has internal and external aspects explicitly identified within the capability approach, but received little explicit attention in capability instruments. This study aimed to develop a feasible and linguistically and culturally appropriate Hungarian version of the Oxford CAPabilities questionnaire—Mental Health (OxCAP-MH) for mental health outcome measurement. Methods Following forward and back translations, a reconciled Hungarian version of the OxCAP-MH was developed following professional consensus guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research and the WHO. The wording of the questionnaire underwent cultural and linguistic validation through content analysis of cognitive debriefing interviews with 11 Hungarian speaking mental health patients in 2019. Results were compared with those from the development of the German version and the original English version with special focus on linguistic aspects. Results Twenty-nine phrases were translated. There were linguistic differences in each question and answer options due to the high number of inflected, affixed words and word fragments that characterize the Hungarian language in general. Major linguistic differences were also revealed between the internal and external aspects of capability freedom of choices which appear much more explicit in the Hungarian than in the English or German languages. A re-analysis of the capability freedom of choice concepts in the existing language versions exposed the need for minor amendments also in the English version in order to allow the development of future culturally, linguistically and conceptually valid translations. Conclusion The internal and external freedom of choice impacts of mental health conditions require different care/policy measures. Their explicit consideration is necessary for the conceptually harmonised operationalisation of the capability approach for (mental) health outcome measurement in diverse cultural and linguistic contexts.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zaheer Hussain ◽  
Elisa Wegmann ◽  
Mark D. Griffiths

Abstract Background Social networking sites (SNSs) allow people to socially connect with each other, collaborate, and share information. However, problematic SNS use (PSNSU) may be associated with negative personality traits. The present study investigated the associations between PSNSU, dark triad personality traits, and emotion dysregulation. Method In the present study, 555 SNS users (Mage = 33.32 years, SD = 10.88) completed an online survey comprising measures of PSNSU, dark triad personality traits, and emotion dysregulation. Results Bivariate correlations showed that PSNSU was significantly associated with dark triad traits as well as emotion dysregulation. Structural equation modelling (where the effect of the dark triad traits on PSNSU was mediated by emotion dysregulation) showed that 33.5% of the variance of PSNSU was explained by Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. Conclusion The findings provide suggestive evidence of why PSNSU may occur as a function of the presence of dark triad traits and emotion dysregulation. The study also highlighted the important role that emotion regulation plays in the association between dark triad traits and PSNSU.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nicholas Edwin Handoyo ◽  
Gandes Retno Rahayu ◽  
Mora Claramita ◽  
Marselino K. P. Abdi Keraf ◽  
Karol Octrisdey ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Resilience is recognized as a critical component of well-being and is an essential factor in coping with stress. There are issues of using a standardized resilience scale developed for one cultural population to be used in the different cultural populations. This study aimed to create a specific measurement scale for measuring doctors’ resilience levels in the rural Indonesian context. Method A total of 527 rural doctors and health professional educators joined this study (37 and 490 participants in the pilot studies and the survey, respectively). An indigenous psychological approach was implemented in linguistic and cultural adaptation and validation of an existing instrument into the local Indonesian rural health context. A combined method of back-translation, committee approach, communication with the original author, and exploratory qualitative study in the local context was conducted. The indigenous psychological approach was implemented in exploring the local context and writing additional local items. Result The final questionnaire consisted of six dimensions and 30 items with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α ranged 0.809–0.960 for each dimension). Ten locally developed items were added to the final questionnaire as a result of the indigenous psychological approach. Conclusion An indigenous psychological approach may enrich the linguistic and cultural adaptation and validation process of an existing scale.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nils Gasslander ◽  
Sven Alfonsson ◽  
Amanda Jackalin ◽  
Cecilia Tengberg ◽  
Johanna Håkansson ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The burden caused by chronic pain is significant, affecting at least 10 percent of the world´s population. While internet-based treatments based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have been shown to be promising in this area, attrition levels vary significantly. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictor variables for participants’ adherence to an internet-based CBT treatment for individuals with chronic pain as well as to investigate associations between adherence and treatment outcome. Methods Data for this study was retrieved from a randomized controlled trial including 95 individuals with chronic pain who received internet-based CBT. Treatment adherence was studied through three outcome variables: treatment progress, treatment completion and exercise completion. The predictor variables were grouped into four clusters: background variables (age, gender, marital status, level of education, and typical computer usage); the second cluster included health status variables (sick leave, current psychiatric diagnosis, previous psychotherapy for pain, current pharmacological treatment, previous depression, current depression, and current depressive symptoms); the third cluster included pain-related variables (opioid medication, history of pain, and pain symptoms) and the fourth cluster included motivation variables (measured with treatment preference, treatment credibility, compliance to the treatment schedule and contact with the therapists). Results Findings showed that treatment progress was predicted by higher treatment credibility at baseline, whereas participants who were behind schedule in the second week of the program finished fewer treatment modules. When analyzing each cluster of predictor variables separately, current depressive symptoms also predicted fewer completed treatment modules. Among the pain-related variables, higher pain acceptance was the only predictor for completing more treatment modules. Treatment completion (which in this study was defined as having completed at least 75% of treatment modules) was predicted by higher treatment credibility and fewer depressive symptoms at baseline, and was thus similar to the results regarding treatment progress. Finally, all adherence variables predicted the treatment outcome pain interference. Conclusions Low treatment credibility, depressive symptoms and falling behind the treatment schedule early on were the most important predictor variables for low treatment adherence, while a number of demographical and pain-related variables were not related to adherence. The results from this study may help clinicians identify patients who are less likely to complete, and thus benefit from, their pain treatment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NTC03316846.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bhina Patria ◽  
Latifatul Laili

Abstract Background Procrastination is a common problem in higher education. It leads to negative consequences on students’ health and academic achievement. Nevertheless, research concerning interventions has not yet produced consistent results. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a writing group program on reducing academic procrastination. Methods This study was a quasi-experimental study with a one-group pretest-posttest design using double pretests. A double pretest design was used to ensure the internal validity of the experiment. Twenty graduate students followed a 15-days writing group program consisted of a training session and four sessions of writing groups. A thesis procrastination scale was used to measure the intervention’s effects. Results The writing group program helped students to set a writing target, discussed writing progress, and provided social support to their colleagues. The results showed that the intervention program could significantly decrease academic procrastination. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that a writing group could potentially reduce academic procrastination. Thus, students could benefit from a writing group when working on their master thesis. A thesis preparation course that provides information about goal-setting strategy and the principles of effective writing habits (i.e., behavioral, artisanal, social and emotional habits), might also assist students in writing their thesis. Further research is needed, preferably through the provision of a control group, a randomized assignment and a larger sample.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tijn van Diemen ◽  
Ilse J. W. van Nes ◽  
Charlotte C. M. van Laake-Geelen ◽  
Dorine Spijkerman ◽  
Jan H. B. Geertzen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background People with a recent spinal cord injury (SCI) often follow intensive rehabilitation. Learning appropriate self-care, deal with their impairments and prevent secondary health conditions (SHCs), is highly important during rehabilitation. To date it is not clear how self-care skills are taught to people with SCI. The objective of this study was to understand how people with SCI experienced the learning of appropriate self-care skills during inpatient rehabilitation, including the role of the rehabilitation team. Methods Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 people with SCI, recently discharged from initial inpatient rehabilitation. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed thematically. Results Two main themes and seven sub-themes were identified. Participants stated that the contribution of the rehabilitation team to learning self-care, including prevention of SHCs, was mostly made by optimizing opportunities to learn through experience. For preventing SHCs, education and lessons learned from the professionals during therapy and the formal educational program, was experienced as especially important. Further, the motivational attitude of the professionals which participants found stimulating and was based on respect, combined with their positive contribution as one team, were seen as essentials elements for learning appropriate self-care. However participants did not recognize the contribution of the nursing staff as part of their rehabilitation, although it was seen as very important. An important aspect of the participants’ own contribution was challenging oneself to learn self-care. This was done in different ways by the participants. Further, their own mental adjustment was considered important in the learning process. The gaining of confidence was by most participants seen as personal characteristic, although they also recognized the importance of the team effort and the experiences they underwent. Conclusions Learning appropriate self-care was mostly done through experience, by challenging themselves, and making use of the opportunities given by the members of the rehabilitation team. The same strategies used by the rehabilitation team to teach people with SCI to perform appropriate self-care, were also helpful for the participants to gain confidence. Explicit attention for self-care training as an important goal in SCI rehabilitation may strengthen the nursing staff’s role and stimulate interdisciplinary working.


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