metabolic functions
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BioTech ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Savanah Senn ◽  
Kelly Pangell ◽  
Adrianna L. Bowerman

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the roles that microbes may be playing in the rootzone of the medicinal plant Daturainoxia. We hypothesized that the microbes associated with the Datura rootzone would be significantly different than the similar surrounding fields in composition and function. We also hypothesized that rhizospheric and endophytic microbes would be associated with similar metabolic functions to the plant rootzone they inhabited. The methods employed were microbial barcoding, tests of essential oils against antibiotic resistant bacteria and other soil bacterial isolates, 16S Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) metabarcoding, and Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) taxonomic and functional analyses. A few of the main bacterial genera of interest that were differentially abundant in the Datura root microbiome were Flavobacterium (p = 0.007), Chitinophaga (p = 0.0007), Pedobacter (p = 6 × 10−5), Bradyhizobium (p = 1 × 10−8), and Paenibacillus (p = 1.46 × 10−6). There was significant evidence that the microbes associated with the Datura rootzone had elevated function related to bacterial chalcone synthase (p = 1.49 × 10−3) and permease genes (p < 0.003). There was some evidence that microbial functions in the Datura rootzone provided precursors to important plant bioactive molecules or were beneficial to plant growth. This is important because these compounds are phyto-protective antioxidants and are precursors to many aromatic bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health. In the context of known interactions, and current results, plants and microbes influence the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways of one other, in terms of the regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. This is the first study to focus on the microbial ecology of the Datura rootzone. There are possible biopharmaceutical and agricultural applications of the natural interplay that was discovered during this study of the Datura inoxia rhizosphere.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 652
Cornelius Engelmann ◽  
Frank Tacke

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents an increasing global health burden. Cellular senescence develops in response to cellular injury, leading not only to cell cycle arrest but also to alterations of the cellular phenotype and metabolic functions. In this review, we critically discuss the currently existing evidence for the involvement of cellular senescence in NAFLD in order to identify areas requiring further exploration. Hepatocyte senescence can be a central pathomechanism as it may foster intracellular fat accumulation, fibrosis and inflammation, also due to secretion of senescence-associated inflammatory mediators. However, in some non-parenchymal liver cell types, such as hepatic stellate cells, senescence may be beneficial by reducing the extracellular matrix deposition and thereby reducing fibrosis. Deciphering the detailed interaction between NAFLD and cellular senescence will be essential to discover novel therapeutic targets halting disease progression.

2022 ◽  
Khashiff K Miranda ◽  
Brooke L Weigel ◽  
Emily Fogarty ◽  
Iva A Veseli ◽  
Anne Giblin ◽  

Coastal marine phototrophs exhibit some of the highest rates of primary productivity in the world. They have been found to host a diverse set of microbes, many of which may impact the biology of their phototroph hosts through metabolisms that are unique to microbial taxa. Here we characterized the metabolic functions of phototroph-associated microbial communities using metagenomes collected from 2 species of kelp (Laminaria setchellii and Nereocystis luetkeana) and 3 marine angiosperms (Phyllospadix scouleri, P. serrulatus and Zostera marina), including the rhizomes of two surfgrass species (Phyllospadix spp.) and the seagrass Zostera marina, and the sediments surrounding P. scouleri and Z. marina. Using metagenomic sequencing, we describe 72 metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) that potentially benefit from being associated with macrophytes and may contribute to macrophyte fitness through their metabolic gene content. All host-associated metagenomes contained genes for the use of dissolved organic matter from hosts and vitamin (B1, B2, B7, B12) biosynthesis. Additionally, we found a range of nitrogen metabolism genes that transform dissolved inorganic nitrogen into forms that may be more available to the host. The rhizosphere of surfgrass and seagrass contained genes for anaerobic microbial metabolisms, including nifH genes associated with nitrogen fixation, despite residing in a well-mixed and oxygenated environment. The range of oxygen environments engineered by macrophytes likely explains the diversity of both oxidizing and reducing microbial metabolisms, and contributes to the functional capabilities of microbes and their influence on carbon and nitrogen cycling in nearshore ecosystems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 122
Miroslav Oborník

Eukaryotic organelles supposedly evolved from their bacterial ancestors because of their benefits to host cells. However, organelles are quite often retained, even when the beneficial metabolic pathway is lost, due to something other than the original beneficial function. The organellar function essential for cell survival is, in the end, the result of organellar evolution, particularly losses of redundant metabolic pathways present in both the host and endosymbiont, followed by a gradual distribution of metabolic functions between the organelle and host. Such biological division of metabolic labor leads to mutual dependence of the endosymbiont and host. Changing environmental conditions, such as the gradual shift of an organism from aerobic to anaerobic conditions or light to dark, can make the original benefit useless. Therefore, it can be challenging to deduce the original beneficial function, if there is any, underlying organellar acquisition. However, it is also possible that the organelle is retained because it simply resists being eliminated or digested untill it becomes indispensable.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Redin A. Spann ◽  
Christopher D. Morrison ◽  
Laura J. den Hartigh

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone that is involved in the regulation of lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism. Pharmacological FGF21 administration promotes weight loss and improves insulin sensitivity in rodents, non-human primates, and humans. However, pharmacologic effects of FGF21 likely differ from its physiological effects. Endogenous FGF21 is produced by many cell types, including hepatocytes, white and brown adipocytes, skeletal and cardiac myocytes, and pancreatic beta cells, and acts on a diverse array of effector tissues such as the brain, white and brown adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle. Different receptor expression patterns dictate FGF21 function in these target tissues, with the primary effect to coordinate responses to nutritional stress. Moreover, different nutritional stimuli tend to promote FGF21 expression from different tissues; i.e., fasting induces hepatic-derived FGF21, while feeding promotes white adipocyte-derived FGF21. Target tissue effects of FGF21 also depend on its capacity to enter the systemic circulation, which varies widely from known FGF21 tissue sources in response to various stimuli. Due to its association with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the metabolic effects of endogenously produced FGF21 during the pathogenesis of these conditions are not well known. In this review, we will highlight what is known about endogenous tissue-specific FGF21 expression and organ cross-talk that dictate its diverse physiological functions, with particular attention given to FGF21 responses to nutritional stress. The importance of the particular experimental design, cellular and animal models, and nutritional status in deciphering the diverse metabolic functions of endogenous FGF21 cannot be overstated.

Zhang-Xian Xie ◽  
Ke-Qiang Yan ◽  
Ling-Fen Kong ◽  
Ying-Bao Gai ◽  
Tao Jin ◽  

AbstractUnderstanding the mechanisms, structuring microbial communities in oligotrophic ocean surface waters remains a major ecological endeavor. Functional redundancy and metabolic tuning are two mechanisms that have been proposed to shape microbial response to environmental forcing. However, little is known about their roles in the oligotrophic surface ocean due to less integrative characterization of community taxonomy and function. Here, we applied an integrated meta-omics-based approach, from genes to proteins, to investigate the microbial community of the oligotrophic northern Indian Ocean. Insignificant spatial variabilities of both genomic and proteomic compositions indicated a stable microbial community that was dominated by Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and SAR11. However, fine tuning of some metabolic functions that are mainly driven by salinity and temperature was observed. Intriguingly, a tuning divergence occurred between metabolic potential and activity in response to different environmental perturbations. Our results indicate that metabolic tuning is an important mechanism for sustaining the stability of microbial communities in oligotrophic oceans. In addition, integrated meta-omics provides a powerful tool to comprehensively understand microbial behavior and function in the ocean.

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