agricultural waste
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2022 ◽  
Vol 158 ◽  
pp. 112122
Author(s):  
Mukesh Kumar Awasthi ◽  
Raveendran Sindhu ◽  
Ranjna Sirohi ◽  
Vinod Kumar ◽  
Vivek Ahluwalia ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

2022 ◽  
Vol 157 ◽  
pp. 106329
Author(s):  
Dylan Mariuzza ◽  
Jui-Chun Lin ◽  
Maurizio Volpe ◽  
Luca Fiori ◽  
Selim Ceylan ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 345 ◽  
pp. 126489
Author(s):  
Nanyi Wang ◽  
Liheng Ren ◽  
Jiachao Zhang ◽  
Mukesh Kumar Awasthi ◽  
Binghua Yan ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 321-327
Author(s):  
Aniqa Naeem ◽  
Rida Batool

Purpose: To study Cr (VI) removal from waste water using chromium-resistant bacterial strains in combination with rice husk. Methods: Two strains of Exiguobacterium sp. resistant to chromium (VI) were applied in the present work. Rice husk (RH) was used as an agricultural waste for Cr (VI) removal. The elimination of Cr from the husk was chemically facilitated using hydrochloric, sulphuric and citric acids, as well as formaldehyde and potassium dihydrogen phosphate Investigation of optimum physical factors such as pH, temperature, shaking speed and biomass concentration on Cr (VI) removal was carried out using citric acid-processed rice husk alone, and in combination of bacterial strains. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to determine the contributions of different functional groups involved in Cr (VI) binding. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of treated and untreated RH was also performed. Results: Citric acid-processed RH was most effective in the removal of chromate (97.3 %). The two bacterial strains combined with rice husk proved highly efficient in Cr (VI) removal from sterile and non-sterile industrial effluents. FTIR spectra showed the involvement of esters, amines and aliphatic functional groups in Cr (VI) binding, while SEM displayed the damaging effects of Cr (VI) on the surface of RH; however, bacterial inoculation minimized the damage. Conclusion: Exopolysaccharides from Exiguobacterium strains and citric acid-processed rice husk demonstrated high efficiency for Cr (VI) removal. Hence, RH with these bacterial strains are potential biosorbents for control of heavy metal contamination arising from industrial effluents.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrey A. Kovalev ◽  
Dmitriy A. Kovalev ◽  
Yuri V. Litti ◽  
Inna V. Katraeva ◽  
Alla N. Nozhevnikova

The transition of livestock production to industrial processes and the concentration of animals associated with this process on large farms and complexes has caused a sharp increase in the volume of manure that must be disposed of without pollution. One of the ways of processing organic waste (biomass) is its anaerobic digestion in biogas plants through the vital activity of microorganisms (methanogenesis).Biogas obtained using microbiological processing of biomass can be used as a raw material for heat and electric energy. Annually, 0.17% of the total livestock manure produced at Russian agricultural enterprisesis used for biogas production.The main component of a biogas plant is a manure fermentation reactor, the required volume of which is determined by the daily output of manure from the livestock farm, the temperature and the hydraulic retention time of treatment. This research explored thermal energy consumption of biogas plants, using the example of a biogas plant of a modular design that depended on the average annual outdoor temperature. Based on the calculations, the thermophilic mode was found to be more energy-efficient than the mesophilic one; thus, with the thermophilic mode, the specific energy consumption needed for the plant was lower at the average annual outdoor temperatures of all the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. At the same time, the specific biogas yield in the thermophilic regime was 20-50%higher than in the mesophilic regime. Keywords: anaerobic processing, agricultural waste, thermophilicmode, mesophilicmode, energy costs, energy rationale


Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 265
Author(s):  
Natalia Sienkiewicz ◽  
Midhun Dominic ◽  
Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai

Epoxy resins as important organic matrices, thanks to their chemical structure and the possibility of modification, have unique properties, which contribute to the fact that these materials have been used in many composite industries for many years. Epoxy resins are repeatedly used in exacting applications due to their exquisite mechanical properties, thermal stability, scratch resistance, and chemical resistance. Moreover, epoxy materials also have really strong resistance to solvents, chemical attacks, and climatic aging. The presented features confirm the fact that there is a constant interest of scientists in the modification of resins and understanding its mechanisms, as well as in the development of these materials to obtain systems with the required properties. Most of the recent studies in the literature are focused on green fillers such as post-agricultural waste powder (cashew nuts powder, coconut shell powder, rice husks, date seed), grass fiber (bamboo fibers), bast/leaf fiber (hemp fibers, banana bark fibers, pineapple leaf), and other natural fibers (waste tea fibers, palm ash) as reinforcement for epoxy resins rather than traditional non-biodegradable fillers due to their sustainability, low cost, wide availability, and the use of waste, which is environmentally friendly. Furthermore, the advantages of natural fillers over traditional fillers are acceptable specific strength and modulus, lightweight, and good biodegradability, which is very desirable nowadays. Therefore, the development and progress of “green products” based on epoxy resin and natural fillers as reinforcements have been increasing. Many uses of natural plant-derived fillers include many plant wastes, such as banana bark, coconut shell, and waste peanut shell, can be found in the literature. Partially biodegradable polymers obtained by using natural fillers and epoxy polymers can successfully reduce the undesirable epoxy and synthetic fiber waste. Additionally, partially biopolymers based on epoxy resins, which will be presented in the paper, are more useful than commercial polymers due to the low cost and improved good thermomechanical properties.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xu Zeng ◽  
Jiaxue Li ◽  
Xinkai Lyu ◽  
Juan Chen ◽  
Xiaomei Chen ◽  
...  

Codonopsis pilosula has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, where it has been used to treat anaemia, fatigue, a weak spleen, and stomach problems, among other ailments. The roots of C. pilosula are considered medicinal, while the aerial parts are always directly discarded after harvest in autumn or winter. Some studies have shown that the stems and leaves of C. pilosula also contain a variety of active metabolites, including saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and polysaccharides. To efficiently utilise resources, waste products from C. pilosula leaves and stems were analysed by untargeted metabolomics and chemometrics. A total of 1508 metabolites were detected and annotated, of which 463 were identified as differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs). These DEMs were grouped into classes, such as carboxylic acids and derivatives, steroids, organic oxygen compounds, fatty acyls, prenol lipids, and flavonoids. Metabolic profiling of C. pilosula tissues showed that the contents of polyacetylenes, polyenes, flavonoids, some alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, and organic acids were higher in stems and leaves, whereas the contents of the main lignans and some alkaloids were more enriched in roots. Moreover, C. pilosula stems and leaves also contained a lobetyolin, syringin and atractylenolide III, which were detected by LC-MS/MS and HPLC-UV. The extracts of C. pilosula aerial parts also showed stronger antioxidant properties than roots. C. pilosula stems and leaves were rich in active ingredients and might have great value for development and utilisation.


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