‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’ infection in cherries causes small, misshapen fruit with poor color and taste, rendering the fruit unmarketable. However, this is a disease with a long development cycle and a scattered, non-uniform symptom distribution in the early stages. To better understand the biology as well as the relationship between pathogen titer and disease expression, we carried out seasonal, spatial, and temporal examinations of ‘Ca. P. pruni’ titer and distribution in infected orchard-grown trees. Sequential sampling of heavily infected trees revealed marked seasonal patterns, with differential accumulation in woody stem and leaf tissues, and most notably within fruit in the early stages of development from bloom to pit hardening. Furthermore, mapping phytoplasma distribution and titer in trees at different stages of infection indicated that infection proceeds through a series of stages. Initially, infection spreads basipetally and accumulates in the roots before populating aerial parts of the trees from the trunk upwards, with infection of specific tissues and limbs followed by an increasing phytoplasma titer. Finally, we observed a correlation between phytoplasma titer and symptom severity, with severe symptom onset associated with 3-4 orders of magnitude more phytoplasma than mild symptoms. Cumulatively, these data aid in accurate sampling and management decision making and furthers our understanding of disease development.
Codonopsis pilosula has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, where it has been used to treat anaemia, fatigue, a weak spleen, and stomach problems, among other ailments. The roots of C. pilosula are considered medicinal, while the aerial parts are always directly discarded after harvest in autumn or winter. Some studies have shown that the stems and leaves of C. pilosula also contain a variety of active metabolites, including saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and polysaccharides. To efficiently utilise resources, waste products from C. pilosula leaves and stems were analysed by untargeted metabolomics and chemometrics. A total of 1508 metabolites were detected and annotated, of which 463 were identified as differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs). These DEMs were grouped into classes, such as carboxylic acids and derivatives, steroids, organic oxygen compounds, fatty acyls, prenol lipids, and flavonoids. Metabolic profiling of C. pilosula tissues showed that the contents of polyacetylenes, polyenes, flavonoids, some alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, and organic acids were higher in stems and leaves, whereas the contents of the main lignans and some alkaloids were more enriched in roots. Moreover, C. pilosula stems and leaves also contained a lobetyolin, syringin and atractylenolide III, which were detected by LC-MS/MS and HPLC-UV. The extracts of C. pilosula aerial parts also showed stronger antioxidant properties than roots. C. pilosula stems and leaves were rich in active ingredients and might have great value for development and utilisation.
AbstractThe present review gives an overview about the status of research on seasonal variation of natural products in herbs growing in or grown in Europe. Due to pronounced differences in weather patterns, papers covering plants from the Mediterranean, the temperate, and the cold climate zones are reviewed separately. Apart from trying to give an overview of the existing newer literature after the year 2000, we try to identify some repeatedly found seasonal trends and discuss some possible explanations for these trends. Moreover, some suggestions, which encompass both research bias and desirable quality standards concerning experimental designs for future studies, are given. The covered investigations are mainly focused on aerial parts and leaves. Some publications are also dealing with flowers and roots. The composition of essential oils of aromatic plants are particularly well investigated. Phenolics are the most often studied compound class, including different types of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tannins. Additionally, some papers assess the seasonal variation of alkaloids and lipophilic compounds.
The cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) crop is relevant for human livelihoods, particularly in poorer regions. It is consumed fresh or as industrialized flour, and the roots and aerial parts are also used to feed livestock. Pests may limit cassava production, which may endanger food security due to the socioeconomic importance of the crop. Reports of the occurrence of three insect guilds, lace bugs, shoot flies, and whiteflies have been recorded in Paraná State, Brazil, but the distinct species and their distribution are yet to be determined. This lack of information limits the development of strategies to mitigate pest damage. Surveys were conducted in 39 counties (four farms per county) distributed throughout the state that encompass the various socioeconomic regions. The collected material was properly packed and sent to the laboratory for identification, and the following species were identified: lace bugs Vatiga illudens Drake, 1922 and Vatiga manihotae Drake, 1922 (both Hemiptera: Tingidae); whiteflies Bemisia tuberculata (Bondar, 1923) and Aleurothrixus aepim (Goeldi, 1886) (both Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and the cassava shoot fly Neosilba perezi Romero & Ruppel, 1973 (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) in Paraná State. Lace bugs were not found in the samples in the eastern and southern portions of the state. V. illudens was more widespread than V. manihotae. The whitefly A. aepim was not observed in three counties (eastern, southern, and central regions), whereas B. tuberculata and the cassava shoot fly were found in all regions sampled in Paraná State. Suggestions for future investigations of pest management are proposed.
Kaempferol is a well-known antioxidant found in many plants and plant-based foods. In plants, kaempferol is present mainly in the form of glycoside derivatives. In this work, we focused on determining the effect of kaempferol and its glycoside derivatives on the expression level of genes related to the reduction of oxidative stress—NFE2L2, NQO1, SOD1, SOD2, and HO-1; the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutases; and the level of glutathione. We used HL-60 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells, which were incubated with the anticancer drug etoposide and kaempferol or one of its three glycoside derivatives isolated from the aerial parts of Lens culinaris Medik.—kaempferol 3-O-[(6-O-E-caffeoyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-β-d-glucuropyranoside (P2), kaempferol 3-O-[(6-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-β-d-glucuropyranoside (P5), and kaempferol 3-O-[(6-O-E-feruloyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-β-d-glucuropyranoside (P7). We showed that none of the tested compounds affected NFE2L2 gene expression. Co-incubation with etoposide (1 µM) and kaempferol (10 and 50 µg/mL) leads to an increase in the expression of the HO-1 (9.49 and 9.33-fold at 10 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL, respectively), SOD1 (1.68-fold at 10 µg/mL), SOD2 (1.72-fold at 10–50 µg/mL), and NQO1 (1.84-fold at 50 µg/mL) genes in comparison to cells treated only with etoposide. The effect of kaempferol derivatives on gene expression differs depending on the derivative. All tested polyphenols increased the SOD activity in cells co-incubated with etoposide. We observed that the co-incubation of HL-60 cells with etoposide and kaempferol or derivative P7 increases the level of total glutathione in these cells. Taken together, our observations suggest that the antioxidant activity of kaempferol is related to the activation of antioxidant genes and proteins. Moreover, we observed that glycoside derivatives can have a different effect on the antioxidant cellular systems than kaempferol.