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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-32
Zilong Liu ◽  
Xuequn Wang ◽  
Xiaohan Li ◽  
Jun Liu

Although individuals increasingly use mobile applications (apps) in their daily lives, uncertainty exists regarding how the apps will use the information they request, and it is necessary to protect users from privacy-invasive apps. Recent literature has begun to pay much attention to the privacy issue in the context of mobile apps. However, little attention has been given to designing the permission request interface to reduce individuals’ perceived uncertainty and to support their informed decisions. Drawing on the principal–agent perspective, our study aims to understand the effects of permission justification, certification, and permission relevance on users’ perceived uncertainty, which in turn influences their permission authorization. Two studies were conducted with vignettes. Our results show that certification and permission relevance indeed reduce users’ perceived uncertainty. Moreover, permission relevance moderates the relationship between permission justification and perceived uncertainty. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
José Campino ◽  
Ana Brochado ◽  
Álvaro Rosa

AbstractRecent literature has addressed initial coin offering (ICO) projects, which are an innovative form of venture financing through cryptocurrencies using blockchain technology. Many features of ICOs remain unexplored, leaving much room for additional research, including the success factors of ICO projects. We investigate the success of ICO projects, with our main purpose being to identify factors that influence a project’s outcome. Following a literature review, from which several potential variables were collected, we used a database comprising 428 ICO projects in the banking/financial sector to regress several econometric models. We confirmed the impacts of several variables and obtained particularly valuable results concerning project and campaign variables. We confirmed the importance of a well-structured and informative whitepaper. The proximity to certain markets with high availability of financial and human capital is also an important determinant of the success of an ICO. We also confirm the strong dependency on cryptocurrency and the impact of cryptocurrency valuations on the success of a project. Furthermore, we confirm the importance of social media in ICO projects, as well as the importance of human capital characteristics. Our research contributes to the ICO literature by capturing most of the success factors previously identified and testing their impacts based on a large database. The current research contributes to the building of systems theory and signaling theory by adapting their frameworks to the ICO environment. Our results are also important for regulators, as ICOs are mainly unregulated and have vast future potential, and for investors, who can benefit from our analysis and use it in their due diligence.

José Luis Ferran ◽  
Manuel Irimia ◽  
Luis Puelles

This essay re-examines the singular case of the supposedly unique rostrally elongated notochord described classically in amphioxus. We start from our previous observations in hpf 21 larvae [Albuixech-Crespo et al., 2017] indicating that the brain vesicle has rostrally a rather standard hypothalamic molecular configuration. This correlates with the notochord across a possible rostromedian acroterminal hypothalamic domain . The notochord shows some molecular differences that specifically characterize its pre-acroterminal extension beyond its normal rostral end under the mamillary region. We explored an alternative interpretation that the putative extension of this notochord actually represents a variant form of the prechordal plate in amphioxus, some of whose cells would adopt the notochordal typology, but would lack notochordal patterning properties, and might have some (but not all) prechordal ones instead. We survey in detail the classic and recent literature on gastrulation, prechordal plate and notochord formation in amphioxus, compared the observed patterns with those of some other vertebrates of interest, and re-examine the literature on differential gene expression patterns in this rostralmost area of the head. We noted that previous literature failed at identifying the amphioxus prechordal primordia at appropriate stages. Under this interpretation, a consistent picture can be drawn for cephalochordates, tunicates, and vertebrates. Moreover, there is little evidence for an intrinsic capacity of the early notochord to grow rostralwards (it normally elongates caudalwards). Altogether, we conclude that the hypothesis of a prechordal nature of the elongated amphioxus notochord is consistent with the evidence presented.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 850
Cornelis van Breemen ◽  
Nicola Fameli ◽  
Klaus Groschner

Nano-junctions between the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic surfaces of the plasma membrane and other organelles shape the spatiotemporal features of biological Ca2+ signals. Herein, we propose that 2D Ca2+ exchange diffusion on the negatively charged phospholipid surface lining nano-junctions participates in guiding Ca2+ from its source (channel or carrier) to its target (transport protein or enzyme). Evidence provided by in vitro Ca2+ flux experiments using an artificial phospholipid membrane is presented in support of the above proposed concept, and results from stochastic simulations of Ca2+ trajectories within nano-junctions are discussed in order to substantiate its possible requirements. Finally, we analyze recent literature on Ca2+ lipid interactions, which suggests that 2D interfacial Ca2+ diffusion may represent an important mechanism of signal transduction in biological systems characterized by high phospholipid surface to aqueous volume ratios.

2022 ◽  
pp. 63-64
Yaroslav Shitov

It is known that, for any real m-by-n matrix A of rank n-2, there is a rational m-by-n matrix which has rank n-2 and sign pattern equal to that of  A. We prove a more general result conjectured in the recent literature.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Said Gharby

This review presents recent technologies involved in vegetable oil refining as well as quality attributes of crude oils obtained by mechanical and solvent extraction. Usually, apart from virgin oils, crude oils cannot be consumed directly or incorporated into various food applications without technological treatments (refining). Indeed, crude oils like soybean, rapeseed, palm, corn, and sunflower oils must be purified or refined before consumption. The objective of such treatments (chemical and physical refining) is to get a better quality, a more acceptable aspect (limpidity), a lighter odor and color, longer stability, and good safety through the elimination of pollutants while minimizing oil loss during processing. However, the problem is that refining removes some essential nutrients and often generates other undesirable compounds such as 3-MCPD-esters and trans-fatty acids. These compounds directly influence the safety level of refined oil. Advantages and drawbacks of both chemical and physical refining were discussed in the light of recent literature. Physical refining has several advantages over chemical one.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
June J. Pilcher ◽  
Logan L. Dorsey ◽  
Samantha M. Galloway ◽  
Dylan N. Erikson

Although researchers have investigated the impact of social isolation on well-being, the recent quarantines due to COVID-19 resulted in a social isolation environment that was unique to any examined in the past. Because sleep is one of the endogenous drives that impacts short and long-term health and well-being, it is important to consider how social isolation during the COVID-19 government-mandated quarantines affected sleep and sleep habits. A number of researchers have addressed this question during the last 2 years by examining several concepts related to possible changes in sleep during the quarantines. To best understand these recent results, the current mini review provides a background on the pre-pandemic literature on the effects of social isolation and loneliness with a focus on sleep and then summarizes the recent literature on sleep and sleep habits. In general, sleep was negatively impacted for many people during the pandemics but not all. One group that seemed to benefit from the pandemic in terms of sleep patterns, were younger people who could more easily adapt their sleep times to match their internal chronobiology. Given the potential broad impact of sleep on health and well-being, better understanding how social isolation impacts sleep is an important consideration for individuals, work organizations, and governments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-02
Cecilia G Rojo Vázquez ◽  
Hugo Enrique Hernández Martínez ◽  
Marta Georgina Ochoa Madrigal

The main objectiveof this paper was to review recent literature and analyze how ADHD researchand conceptualization has adapted to what we clinically see at our practice. This review is of special importance due to the highly heterogeneous clinicalpresentation of this disease.

Obesities ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Heitor O. Santos

Clinical studies addressing the benefits of intermittent fasting (IF) diets have evoked interest in the treatment of obesity. Herein, the overall effects of IF regimens on fat-mass loss are explained in a brief review through a recent literature update. To date, human studies show a reduction in fat mass from 0.7 to 11.3 kg after IF regimens, in which the duration of interventions ranges from two weeks to one year. In light of this, IF regimens can be considered a reasonable approach to weight (fat mass) loss. However, the benefits of IF regimens occur thanks to energy restriction and cannot hence be considered the best dietary protocol compared to conventional diets.

2022 ◽  
Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel ◽  
Cody Cushing ◽  
Hakwan Lau

Multiple mental disorders have been associated with dysregulations of precise brain processes. However, few therapeutic approaches are currently available in order to correct such specific patterns of brain activity. Since the late 60s and early 70s, many have hoped that this feat could be achieved by closed-loop brain imaging approaches, such as neurofeedback, that aim at modulating brain activity directly. However, neurofeedback never acquired mainstream acceptance in mental health, in part due to methodological considerations. Here, we argue that, when contemporary methodological guidelines are followed, neurofeedback is one of the few intervention methods in psychology that can be assessed in double-blind placebo-controlled trials. Furthermore, using new advances in machine learning and statistics, it is now possible to target very precise patterns of brain activity for therapeutic purposes. We review the recent literature in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback and discuss current and future applications to mental health.

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