chikungunya virus
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Kerri L Miazgowicz ◽  
Judith Mary Reyes Ballista ◽  
Marissa D Acciani ◽  
Ariana R Jimenez ◽  
Ryan S Belloli ◽  

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, is the causative agent of the human disease chikungunya fever (CHIKF), which is characterized by debilitating acute and chronic arthralgia. No licensed vaccines or antivirals exist for CHIKV. Preventing the attachment of viral particles to host cells is an attractive intervention strategy. Viral entry of enveloped viruses from diverse families including Filoviridae and Flaviviridae is mediated or enhanced by phosphatidylserine receptors (PSRs). PSRs facilitate the attachment of enveloped viruses to cells by binding to exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) in the viral lipid membrane - a process termed viral apoptotic mimicry. To investigate the role of viral apoptotic mimicry during CHIKV infection, we produced viral particles with discrete amounts of exposed PS on the virion envelope by exploiting the cellular distribution of phospholipids at the plasma membrane. We found that CHIKV particles containing high outer leaflet PS (produced in cells lacking flippase activity) were more infectious in Vero cells than particles containing low levels of outer leaflet PS (produced in cells lacking scramblase activity). However, the same viral particles were similarly infectious in NIH3T3 and HAP1 cells, suggesting PS levels can influence infectivity only in cells with high levels of PSRs. Interestingly, PS-dependent CHIKV entry was observed in mosquito Aag2 cells, but not C6/36 cells. These data demonstrate that CHIKV entry via viral apoptotic mimicry is cell-type dependent. Furthermore, viral apoptotic mimicry has a mechanistic basis to influence viral dynamics in vivo in both the human and mosquito host.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 162
Tessy A. H. Hick ◽  
Corinne Geertsema ◽  
Maurice G. L. Henquet ◽  
Dirk E. Martens ◽  
Stefan W. Metz ◽  

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne virus that causes a severe febrile illness with long-lasting arthralgia in humans. As there is no vaccine to protect humans and limit CHIKV epidemics, the virus continues to be a global public health concern. The CHIKV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are important immunogens; therefore, the aim of this study is to produce trimeric CHIKV spikes in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. The CHIKV E1 and E2 ectodomains were covalently coupled by a flexible linker that replaces the 6K transmembrane protein. The C-terminal E1 transmembrane was replaced by a Strep-tag II for the purification of secreted spikes from the culture fluid. After production in Sf9 suspension cells (product yields of 5.8–7.6 mg/L), the CHIKV spikes were purified by Strep-Tactin affinity chromatography, which successfully cleared the co-produced baculoviruses. Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate cross-linking demonstrated that the spikes are secreted as trimers. PNGase F treatment showed that the spikes are glycosylated. LC–MS/MS-based glycoproteomic analysis confirmed the glycosylation and revealed that the majority are of the mannose- or hybrid-type N-glycans and <2% have complex-type N-glycans. The LC –MS/MS analysis also revealed three O-glycosylation sites in E1. In conclusion, the trimeric, glycosylated CHIKV spikes have been successfully produced in insect cells and are now available for vaccination studies.

ACS Omega ◽  
2022 ◽  
Manisha Shukla ◽  
Pankaj Chandley ◽  
Suman Tapryal ◽  
Narendra Kumar ◽  
Sulakshana P. Mukherjee ◽  

Deborah de Castro Moreira ◽  
Francisco Ferreira Duarte Junior ◽  
José Renato Pattaro Júnior ◽  
Fernando Américo Jorge ◽  
Fabiana dos Santos Rando ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jinny L. Liu ◽  
Dan Zabetakis ◽  
Christina L. Gardner ◽  
Crystal W. Burke ◽  
Pamela J. Glass ◽  

AbstractVenezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito borne alphavirus which leads to high viremia in equines followed by lethal encephalitis and lateral spread to humans. In addition to naturally occurring outbreaks, VEEV is a potential biothreat agent with no approved human vaccine or therapeutic currently available. Single domain antibodies (sdAb), also known as nanobodies, have the potential to be effective therapeutic agents. Using an immune phage display library derived from a llama immunized with an equine vaccine that included inactivated VEEV, five sdAb sequence families were identified that showed varying ability to neutralize VEEV. One of the sequence families had been identified previously in selections against chikungunya virus, a related alphavirus of public health concern. A key advantage of sdAb is the ability to optimize properties such as neutralization capacity through protein engineering. Neutralization of VEEV was improved by two orders of magnitude by genetically linking sdAb. One of the bivalent constructs showed effective neutralization of both VEEV and chikungunya virus. Several of the bivalent constructs neutralized VEEV in cell-based assays with reductions in the number of plaques by 50% at protein concentrations of 1 ng/mL or lower, making future evaluation of their therapeutic potential compelling.

2022 ◽  
John Macri ◽  
Marilyn Prieto ◽  
Morgan Domangue ◽  
Amanda James ◽  
Taylor Shulse ◽  

Abstract Background: Bats are reservoirs for several zoonotic pathogens, making human-bat interactions particularly concerning. Recent studies documented that Grenadian bats can be infected with Zika, dengue and Chikungunya viruses and Leptospira bacteria among other pathogens. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of homes in Grenada that have a bat infestation, and to determine whether there is a correlation between the number of bat infested homes with the type of roofing or the presence of arbovirus infections of human inhabitants. Methods: An institutional review board (IRB) approved questionnaire delivered through a semi-structured interview was administered at the central bus stop in St. George, Grenada to recruit participants from all six parishes and the island of Carriacou. Results determined the percentage of individuals that had bat roosts in their households, whether this was of concern to them, whether they had taken any steps to keep bats out of their residence, and whether they had confirmed or suspected cases of dengue, Zika or Chikungunya virus infections. Information on the type of roofing and presence of window screens were also documented. Bat type (fruit vs insect eating bats) was attempted by guano description. Results: Results from 210 individual responses provided data showing all six parishes were represented although not equally. Having bats at the household was not associated with parish of residence, roof type or presence or absence of window screens. The results showed 60% of homes in Grenada are bat-infested and 51% of people self-reported recent arbovirus infection; but no correlation between the two. Also, no correlation to a specific type of roof or type of bat was found.Conclusions: A statistically significant number of inhabitants had attempted to remove bats from their homes, indicating that bats are perceived as pest to homes in Grenada, and justifying further research into relocating bats through the use of construction changes, awareness, and the creation of bat houses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Saovanee Benjamanukul ◽  
Jira Chansaenroj ◽  
Chintana Chirathaworn ◽  
Yong Poovorawan

Abstract Introduction Patients with chikungunya virus infection commonly present with fever, skin rash, and severe joint pain. The vesiculobullous rash is rare in adults but common in infants. In addition, septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome are rare complications of atypical and severe acute chikungunya infection. Case presentation We report the presence of an 18-year-old Thai female, at 31 weeks gestation, with fever, maculopapular rash, and polyarthritis. The rash later progressed to a vesiculobullous pattern, and she developed septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Skin biopsy and blood were positive for chikungunya virus RNA. The patient was intubated with a mechanical ventilator and subsequently fully recovered. Conclusion Atypical skin manifestation and severe acute disease is likely due to immune response attenuation in pregnancy. The possibility of progression to severe or atypical disease in pregnant women suffering chikungunya should always be considered.

Paulo Pacheco ◽  
Daniel Gonzaga ◽  
Cláudio Cirne-Santos ◽  
Caroline Barros ◽  
Max Gomes ◽  

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging disease caused by an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. Since its first description in 1952, the disease has spread worldwide, affecting populations in both tropical and temperate countries. To date, there is no licensed vaccine or specific pharmacological treatment. Therefore, there is an increasing urgency in developing new antiviral drugs capable of specifically inhibiting viral replication. In the present work, we report the synthesis and antiviral activity evaluation of nineteen naphthoquinone derivatives, containing a sulfonamide or sulfonate group. Cell viability assays indicated a low toxic potential for all tested compounds and inhibitory assays against CHIKV identified five compounds with potent activity. The compounds were also evaluated for their virucidal potential, and the results demonstrated that compound 11a exhibited a virucidal effect higher than 70% in the treatment with 20 µM. Furthermore, in silico studies were performed to predict the antiviral drug targets.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document