simplex virus
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 947
Sanya Sureram ◽  
Irene Arduino ◽  
Reiko Ueoka ◽  
Massimo Rittà ◽  
Rachele Francese ◽  

Herpesviruses are highly prevalent in the human population, and frequent reactivations occur throughout life. Despite antiviral drugs against herpetic infections, the increasing appearance of drug-resistant viral strains and their adverse effects prompt the research of novel antiherpetic drugs for treating lesions. Peptides obtained from natural sources have recently become of particular interest for antiviral therapy applications. In this work, we investigated the antiviral activity of the peptide A-3302-B, isolated from a marine bacterium, Micromonospora sp., strain MAG 9-7, against herpes simplex virus type 1, type 2, and human cytomegalovirus. Results showed that the peptide exerted a specific inhibitory activity against HSV-2 with an EC50 value of 14 μM. Specific antiviral assays were performed to investigate the mechanism of action of A-3302-B. We demonstrated that the peptide did not affect the expression of viral proteins, but it inhibited the late events of the HSV-2 replicative cycle. In detail, it reduced the cell-to-cell virus spread and the transmission of the extracellular free virus by preventing the egress of HSV-2 progeny from the infected cells. The dual antiviral and previously reported anti-inflammatory activities of A-3302-B, and its effect against an acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strain are attractive features for developing a therapeutic to reduce the transmission of HSV-2 infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 815
Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard ◽  
Bashdar Mahmud Hussen ◽  
Hazha Hadayat Jamal ◽  
Mohammad Taheri ◽  
Guive Sharifi

Non-coding RNAs, particularly lncRNAs and miRNAs, have recently been shown to regulate different steps in viral infections and induction of immune responses against viruses. Expressions of several host and viral lncRNAs have been found to be altered during viral infection. These lncRNAs can exert antiviral function via inhibition of viral infection or stimulation of antiviral immune response. Some other lncRNAs can promote viral replication or suppress antiviral responses. The current review summarizes the interaction between ncRNAs and herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr infections. The data presented in this review helps identify viral-related regulators and proposes novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of viral infection.

2022 ◽  
Iara M Backes ◽  
Brook K Byrd ◽  
Chaya D Patel ◽  
Sean A Taylor ◽  
Callaghan R Garland ◽  

Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections often result in significant mortality and neurological morbidity despite antiviral drug therapy. Maternally-transferred HSV-specific antibodies reduce the risk of clinically-overt neonatal HSV (nHSV), but this observation has not been translationally applied. Using a neonatal mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that passive transfer of HSV-specific human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can prevent mortality and morbidity associated with nHSV. The mAbs were expressed in vivo by vectored immunoprophylaxis, or administered in vivo following recombinant expression in vitro. Through these maternally-derived routes or through direct administration to pups, diverse mAbs to HSV glycoprotein D protected against neonatal HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection. Using in vivo bioluminescent imaging, both pre- and post-exposure mAb treatment significantly reduced viral load. Administration of mAb also reduced nHSV-induced behavioral morbidity, as measured by anxiety-like behavior. Together these studies support the notion that HSV-specific mAb-based therapies may prevent or improve HSV infection outcomes in neonates.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 227
Mariaconcetta Sicurella ◽  
Maddalena Sguizzato ◽  
Paolo Mariani ◽  
Alessia Pepe ◽  
Anna Baldisserotto ◽  

Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection commonly affects many people, causing perioral sores, as well as severe complications including encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The main pharmacological approach involves synthetic antiviral drugs, among which acyclovir is the golden standard, often leading to resistant virus strains under long-term use. An alternative approach based on antiviral plant-derived compounds, such as quercetin and mangiferin, demonstrated an antiviral potential. In the present study, semisolid forms for cutaneous application of quercetin and mangiferin were designed and evaluated to treat HSV-1 infection. Phosphatidylcholine- and poloxamer-based gels were produced and characterized. Gel physical–chemical aspects were evaluated by rheological measurements and X-ray diffraction, evidencing the different thermoresponsive behaviors and supramolecular organizations of semisolid forms. Quercetin and mangiferin diffusion kinetics were compared in vitro by a Franz cell system, demonstrating the different gel efficacies to restrain the polyphenol diffusion. The capability of gels to control polyphenol antioxidant potential and stability was evaluated, indicating a higher stability and antioxidant activity in the case of quercetin loaded in poloxamer-based gel. Furthermore, a plaque reduction assay, conducted to compare the virucidal effect of quercetin and mangiferin loaded in gels against the HSV-1 KOS strain, demonstrated the suitability of poloxamer-based gel to prolong the polyphenol activity.

2022 ◽  
pp. 6-11
Risa Shimizu ◽  
Fumihiko Tsushima ◽  
Ruri Komiya ◽  
Yuko Yamagata ◽  
Hiroyuki Harada

Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a type of drug reaction in which cutaneous or mucocutaneous lesions recur at the same site due to repeated administration of the causative drug. The most reported FDE-inducing drugs are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We report a case of FDE associated with the use of NSAIDs for menstrual pain. A 33-year-old woman was referred to our department with blisters and soreness on her lips, tongue, and labial mucosa. The results of blood examination helped rule out herpes simplex virus infection, pemphigus, and pemphigoid. An FDE was suspected because these symptoms coincided with the use of NSAIDs for menstrual pain. Thus, the patient was advised not to use these NSAIDs but to use acetaminophen instead. No recurrence has been observed since the patient began avoiding these NSAIDs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaowei Song ◽  
Yiliang Wang ◽  
Feng Li ◽  
Wenyan Cao ◽  
Qiongzhen Zeng ◽  

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common neurotropic virus, the herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) caused by which is considered to be the most common sporadic but fatal encephalitis. Traditional antiviral drugs against HSV-1 are limited to nucleoside analogs targeting viral factors. Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has potent anti-HSV-1 activities via numerous mechanisms, but the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors on HSV-1 infection in neuronal cells, especially in the phase of virus entry, are still unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of the Hsp90 inhibitors on HSV-1 infection of neuronal cells. Interestingly, we found that Hsp90 inhibitors promoted viral adsorption but inhibited subsequent penetration in neuronal cell lines and primary neurons, which jointly confers the antiviral activity of the Hsp90 inhibitors. Mechanically, Hsp90 inhibitors mainly impaired the interaction between Hsp90 and cofilin, resulting in reduced cofilin membrane distribution, which led to F-actin polymerization to promote viral attachment. However, excessive polymerization of F-actin inhibited subsequent viral penetration. Consequently, unidirectional F-actin polymerization limits the entry of HSV-1 virions into neuron cells. Our research extended the molecular mechanism of Hsp90 in HSV-1 infection in neuron cells and provided a theoretical basis for developing antiviral drugs targeting Hsp90.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Edris Nabizadeh ◽  
Anahita Ghotaslou ◽  
Behnaz Salahi ◽  
Reza Ghotaslou

Objectives. The organisms of Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes simplex virus as an acronym of TORCH are major pathogens in prepregnancy and reproductive-age women. These microorganisms are considered a serious problem and cause 2-3% of all birth defects in the fetus. Our study was aimed at screening the seroprevalence of TORCH antibodies among prepregnancy and reproductive-age women in Tabriz, Iran. Design and Setting. This study was carried out in 2726 prepregnancy and reproductive-age women, who were referred to the laboratory for prenatal TORCH screening. To detect the presence of IgG, IgM antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen against these microorganisms were carried out using a chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer (CLIA). Results. In the current study, the rates of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG, anti-Rubella virus IgG, and anti-Cytomegalovirus IgG were found in 722 cases (26.5%), 2579 cases (94.6%0), and 2718 cases (99.7%), respectively. Moreover, the rates of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM, anti-Rubella virus IgM, and anti-Cytomegalovirus IgM were discovered in 10 cases (0.4%), 13 cases (0.5%), and 16 cases (0.6%), respectively. The Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in 32 cases (1.2%). The dissemination of positive TORCH in various ages was different ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusions. In our study, the seroprevalence of acute TORCH infections was relatively low. Due to the probability of vertical transmission to the fetus during pregnancy and the unpleasant complication of these pathogens, it is essential to be screened for detection of specific IgG and IgM antibodies in reproductive ages.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Bangxing Hong ◽  
Upasana Sahu ◽  
Matthew P. Mullarkey ◽  
Balveen Kaur

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) is a highly promising treatment for solid tumors. Intense research and development efforts have led to first-in-class approval for an oHSV for melanoma, but barriers to this promising therapy still exist that limit efficacy. The process of infection, replication and transmission of oHSV in solid tumors is key to obtaining a good lytic destruction of infected cancer cells to kill tumor cells and release tumor antigens that can prime anti-tumor efficacy. Intracellular tumor cell signaling and tumor stromal cells present multiple barriers that resist oHSV activity. Here, we provide a review focused on oncolytic HSV and the essential viral genes that allow for virus replication and spread in order to gain insight into how manipulation of these pathways can be exploited to potentiate oHSV infection and replication among tumor cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Hong Yang ◽  
Feng Xiong ◽  
Hai-Bin Qin ◽  
Qun-Tao Yu ◽  
Jin-Yan Sun ◽  

Abstract Background Viral tracers are important tools for mapping brain connectomes. The feature of predominant anterograde transneuronal transmission offers herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) strain H129 (HSV1-H129) as a promising candidate to be developed as anterograde viral tracers. In our earlier studies, we developed H129-derived anterograde polysynaptic tracers and TK deficient (H129-dTK) monosynaptic tracers. However, their broad application is limited by some intrinsic drawbacks of the H129-dTK tracers, such as low labeling intensity due to TK deficiency and potential retrograde labeling caused by axon terminal invasion. The glycoprotein K (gK) of HSV-1 plays important roles in virus entry, egress, and virus-induced cell fusion. Its deficiency severely disables virus egress and spread, while only slightly limits viral genome replication and expression of viral proteins. Therefore, we created a novel H129-derived anterograde monosynaptic tracer (H129-dgK) by targeting gK, which overcomes the limitations of H129-dTK. Methods Using our established platform and pipeline for developing viral tracers, we generated a novel tracer by deleting the gK gene from the H129-G4. The gK-deleted virus (H129-dgK-G4) was reconstituted and propagated in the Vero cell expressing wildtype H129 gK (gKwt) or the mutant gK (gKmut, A40V, C82S, M223I, L224V, V309M), respectively. Then the obtained viral tracers of gKmut pseudotyped and gKwt coated H129-dgK-G4 were tested in vitro and in vivo to characterize their tracing properties. Results H129-dgK-G4 expresses high levels of fluorescent proteins, eliminating the requirement of immunostaining for imaging detection. Compared to the TK deficient monosynaptic tracer H129-dTK-G4, H129-dgK-G4 labeled neurons with 1.76-fold stronger fluorescence intensity, and visualized 2.00-fold more postsynaptic neurons in the downstream brain regions. gKmut pseudotyping leads to a 77% decrease in retrograde labeling by reducing axon terminal invasion, and thus dramatically improves the anterograde-specific tracing of H129-dgK-G4. In addition, assisted by the AAV helper trans-complementarily expressing gKwt, H129-dgK-G4 allows for mapping monosynaptic connections and quantifying the circuit connectivity difference in the Alzheimer’s disease and control mouse brains. Conclusions gKmut pseudotyped H129-dgK-G4, a novel anterograde monosynaptic tracer, overcomes the limitations of H129-dTK tracers, and demonstrates desirable features of strong labeling intensity, high tracing efficiency, and improved anterograde specificity.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Natalia V. Krylova ◽  
Anna O. Kravchenko ◽  
Olga V. Iunikhina ◽  
Anastasia B. Pott ◽  
Galina N. Likhatskaya ◽  

The structural diversity and unique physicochemical properties of sulphated polysaccharides of red algae carrageenans (CRGs), to a great extent, determine the wide range of their antiviral properties. This work aimed to compare the antiviral activities of different structural types of CRGs: against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and enterovirus (ECHO-1). We found that CRGs significantly increased the resistance of Vero cells to virus infection (preventive effect), directly affected virus particles (virucidal effect), inhibited the attachment and penetration of virus to cells, and were more effective against HSV-1. CRG1 showed the highest virucidal effect on HSV-1 particles with a selective index (SI) of 100. CRG2 exhibited the highest antiviral activity by inhibiting HSV-1 and ECHO-1 plaque formation, with a SI of 110 and 59, respectively, when it was added before virus infection. CRG2 also significantly reduced the attachment of HSV-1 and ECHO-1 to cells compared to other CRGs. It was shown by molecular docking that tetrasaccharides—CRGs are able to bind with the HSV-1 surface glycoprotein, gD, to prevent virus–cell interactions. The revealed differences in the effect of CRGs on different stages of the lifecycle of the viruses are apparently related to the structural features of the investigated compounds.

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