imaging study
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 564-568
Ming Lei ◽  
Junjian Zhang ◽  
Dongmei Wu

<sec> <title>Objective:</title> By using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) we have analyzed activationsin brain regions at different phases in migraineurs. </sec> <sec> <title>Methods:</title> Participants included 41 patients with migraine, 19 in episode and 22 in interictal phase, and 22 controls in the healthy condition. To analyze the brain function of patients and controls, ALFF was used for performing the post-processing in the resting state by scores of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). </sec> <sec> <title>Results:</title> The comparison between groups of patients with migraine in the episode or interictal phases, and healthy controls showed that both episode and interictal migraine groups had the similar HAM-A and HAM-D scores (P > 0.05), but higher than that in controls (P < 0.01). For ALFF values of Episode and Interictal groups, the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) coordinates of the decreased ALFF were (−9, 42, 9), the voxel size = 215, including the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), T =−4.15, without significant differences. Patients in Interictal group were with a stronger activation at MNI coordinates (12, 51, 12), in the bilateral ACC, voxel size = 90, T =3.87. </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusion:</title> ACC plays an adaptive, regulatory role in migraine and is related to multiple brain regions, which may mediate activation through descending anti-nociceptive pathways. ACC is related to opioid receptor and glutamate excitatory regulation. </sec>

2022 ◽  
Vol 520 ◽  
pp. 230818
Wenjia Du ◽  
Rhodri E. Owen ◽  
Anmol Jnawali ◽  
Tobias P. Neville ◽  
Francesco Iacoviello ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 96 ◽  
pp. 68-73
Hala A. Shaheen ◽  
Sayed S. Sayed ◽  
Mostafa M. Magdy ◽  
Mohamed A. Saad ◽  
Ahmad M. Magdy ◽  

Synapse ◽  
2022 ◽  
Yuki Kirihara ◽  
Manabu Zama ◽  
Satoshi Fujita ◽  
Shouhei Ogisawa ◽  
Shuichi Nishikubo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Tomohiro Seki ◽  
Yu Saida ◽  
Shun Kishimoto ◽  
Jisook Lee ◽  
Yasunori Otowa ◽  

PEGylated human hyaluronidase (PEGPH20) enzymatically depletes hyaluronan, an important component of the extracellular matrix, in tumors. The resultant improvement in vascular patency and perfusion has been shown to increase the delivery of therapeutic molecules. We show that PEGPH20 also improves the efficacy of radiation therapy in a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma BxPC3 mouse model overexpressing hyaluronan synthase 3 (BxPC3-HAS3) while exerting little effect on the corresponding wild type tumors. Mice overexpressing HAS3 developed fast growing, radiation resistant tumors that became rapidly more hypoxic as time progressed. Treatment with PEGPH20 increased survival times when used in combination with radiation therapy, significantly more than either radiation therapy or PEGPH20 alone. Radiosensitization in BxPC3-HAS3 tumors was attributed to an increase in local pO2 as studied by by EPR imaging. No effect on survival, radiation treatment, or pO2 was seen in wild type tumors after PEGPH20 treatment. Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI and MRI based blood volume imaging showed improved perfusion/permeability and local blood volume, respectively, in BxPC3-HAS3 tumors after PEGPH20 treatment, accounting for the increase in tumor oxygenation. Photoacoustic imaging indicated immediate changes in tumor oxygenation after treatment. Metabolic MRI using hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate suggested a metabolic shift towards decreased glycolytic flux after PEGPH20 treatment. In summary, the results showed that PEGPH20 may be useful for radiosensitization of pancreatic cancer but only in the subset of tumors with substantial hyaluronan accumulation and the response of the treatment may potentially be monitored non-invasive imaging of the hemodynamic and metabolic changes in the tumor microenvironment.

Matti Gärtner ◽  
Anne Weigand ◽  
Milan Scheidegger ◽  
Mick Lehmann ◽  
Patrik O. Wyss ◽  

AbstractKetamine exerts its rapid antidepressant effects via modulation of the glutamatergic system. While numerous imaging studies have investigated the effects of ketamine on a functional macroscopic brain level, it remains unclear how altered glutamate metabolism and changes in brain function are linked. To shed light on this topic we here conducted a multimodal imaging study in healthy volunteers (N = 23) using resting state fMRI and proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to investigate linkage between metabolic and functional brain changes induced by ketamine. Subjects were investigated before and during an intravenous ketamine infusion. The MRS voxel was placed in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), as this region has been repeatedly shown to be involved in ketamine’s effects. Our results showed functional connectivity changes from the pgACC to the right frontal pole and anterior mid cingulate cortex (aMCC). Absolute glutamate and glutamine concentrations in the pgACC did not differ significantly from baseline. However, we found that stronger pgACC activation during ketamine was linked to lower glutamine concentration in this region. Furthermore, reduced functional connectivity between pgACC and aMCC was related to increased pgACC activation and reduced glutamine. Our results thereby demonstrate how multimodal investigations in a single brain region could help to advance our understanding of the association between metabolic and functional changes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
Gugum Indra Firdaus ◽  
Jufriady Ismy

Objective: To report our experience on management of testicular teratoma in pediatric patient. Case(s) presentation: A 2-years-old boy presented with progressive mass in his left testis. The mass was found 3 months ago but became larger in a few days. The patient had no other genitourinary complaint. Vital signs were within normal limits. A hard and tender mass in the left scrotum sized 5x4x2.5 cm was palpated from the physical examination. An imaging study with Computed Tomography (CT) Scan revealed an enhancement in the left scrotum mass area. There was no ring enhancement in pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes. The laboratory examination within normal limit. Inguinal radical orchiectomy was performed, and histopathological examination revealed a mature testicular teratoma of the left testis. Discussion: Testicular teratoma in children is usually benign. Testicular germ cell tumors generally have a good prognosis with current therapy. Post-orchiectomy management depends on the histology type, staging, and tumor markers. Conclusion: Testicular teratoma is a rare case and can cause minimal symptoms until it grows significantly. Testicular teratoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of non-traumatic painless progressive scrotal mass. Inguinal radical orchiectomy may be considered as the primary management.

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