regional analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 358
Francesco Latini ◽  
Markus Fahlström ◽  
Fredrik Vedung ◽  
Staffan Stensson ◽  
Elna-Marie Larsson ◽  

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) or repeated sport-related concussions (rSRC) may lead to long-term memory impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is helpful to reveal global white matter damage but may underestimate focal abnormalities. We investigated the distribution of post-injury regional white matter changes after TBI and rSRC. Six patients with moderate/severe TBI, and 12 athletes with rSRC were included ≥6 months post-injury, and 10 (age-matched) healthy controls (HC) were analyzed. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status was performed at the time of DTI. Major white matter pathways were tracked using q-space diffeomorphic reconstruction and analyzed for global and regional changes with a controlled false discovery rate. TBI patients displayed multiple classic white matter injuries compared with HC (p < 0.01). At the regional white matter analysis, the left frontal aslant tract, anterior thalamic radiation, and the genu of the corpus callosum displayed focal changes in both groups compared with HC but with different trends. Both TBI and rSRC displayed worse memory performance compared with HC (p < 0.05). While global analysis of DTI-based parameters did not reveal common abnormalities in TBI and rSRC, abnormalities to the fronto-thalamic network were observed in both groups using regional analysis of the white matter pathways. These results may be valuable to tailor individualized rehabilitative approaches for post-injury cognitive impairment in both TBI and rSRC patients.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 335
Stephan Ursprung ◽  
Ramona Woitek ◽  
Mary A. McLean ◽  
Andrew N. Priest ◽  
Mireia Crispin-Ortuzar ◽  

Differentiating aggressive clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from indolent lesions is challenging using conventional imaging. This work prospectively compared the metabolic imaging phenotype of renal tumors using carbon-13 MRI following injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate (HP-13C-MRI) and validated these findings with histopathology. Nine patients with treatment-naïve renal tumors (6 ccRCCs, 1 liposarcoma, 1 pheochromocytoma, 1 oncocytoma) underwent pre-operative HP-13C-MRI and conventional proton (1H) MRI. Multi-regional tissue samples were collected using patient-specific 3D-printed tumor molds for spatial registration between imaging and molecular analysis. The apparent exchange rate constant (kPL) between 13C-pyruvate and 13C-lactate was calculated. Immunohistochemistry for the pyruvate transporter (MCT1) from 44 multi-regional samples, as well as associations between MCT1 expression and outcome in the TCGA-KIRC dataset, were investigated. Increasing kPL in ccRCC was correlated with increasing overall tumor grade (ρ = 0.92, p = 0.009) and MCT1 expression (r = 0.89, p = 0.016), with similar results acquired from the multi-regional analysis. Conventional 1H-MRI parameters did not discriminate tumor grades. The correlation between MCT1 and ccRCC grade was confirmed within a TCGA dataset (p < 0.001), where MCT1 expression was a predictor of overall and disease-free survival. In conclusion, metabolic imaging using HP-13C-MRI differentiates tumor aggressiveness in ccRCC and correlates with the expression of MCT1, a predictor of survival. HP-13C-MRI may non-invasively characterize metabolic phenotypes within renal cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (4) ◽  
pp. 647-654
Y .V. RAMA RAO ◽  

The impact of humidity profiles estimated from INSAT digital IR cloud imagery data on initial moisture analysis in the IMD's operational limited area forecast system has been investigated. Method for assimilation of humidity profiles data as pseudo observations in the analysis scheme has been developed and implemented in the regional analysis scheme. Verification of humidity analysis with this data has shown substantial improvements in the moisture analysis over the data sparse region of tropics. Impact of the improved humidity analysis on model predicted rainfall is examined. The experiments show improved rainfall prediction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Luigi Albano ◽  
Federica Agosta ◽  
Silvia Basaia ◽  
Camilla Cividini ◽  
Tanja Stojkovic ◽  

AbstractThis study aimed to identify functional neuroimaging patterns anticipating the clinical indication for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). A cohort of prospectively recruited patients with PD underwent neurological evaluations and resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) at baseline and annually for 4 years. Patients were divided into two groups: 19 patients eligible for DBS over the follow-up and 41 patients who did not meet the criteria to undergo DBS. Patients selected as candidates for DBS did not undergo surgery at this stage. Sixty age- and sex-matched healthy controls performed baseline evaluations. Graph analysis and connectomics assessed global and local topological network properties and regional functional connectivity at baseline and at each time point. At baseline, network analysis showed a higher mean nodal strength, local efficiency, and clustering coefficient of the occipital areas in candidates for DBS over time relative to controls and patients not eligible for DBS. The occipital hyperconnectivity pattern was confirmed by regional analysis. At baseline, a decreased functional connectivity between basal ganglia and sensorimotor/frontal networks was found in candidates for DBS compared to patients not eligible for surgery. In the longitudinal analysis, patient candidate for DBS showed a progressively decreased topological brain organization and functional connectivity, mainly in the posterior brain networks, and a progressively increased connectivity of basal ganglia network compared to non-candidates for DBS. RS-fMRI may support the clinical indication to DBS and could be useful in predicting which patients would be eligible for DBS in the earlier stages of PD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
Stephen Hynes ◽  
Cathal O'Donoghue ◽  
Ryan Burger ◽  
Jenny O'Leary

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Young-Gon Kim ◽  
Kyungsang Kim ◽  
Dufan Wu ◽  
Hui Ren ◽  
Won Young Tak ◽  

Imaging plays an important role in assessing the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia. Recent COVID-19 research indicates that the disease progress propagates from the bottom of the lungs to the top. However, chest radiography (CXR) cannot directly provide a quantitative metric of radiographic opacities, and existing AI-assisted CXR analysis methods do not quantify the regional severity. In this paper, to assist the regional analysis, we developed a fully automated framework using deep learning-based four-region segmentation and detection models to assist the quantification of COVID-19 pneumonia. Specifically, a segmentation model is first applied to separate left and right lungs, and then a detection network of the carina and left hilum is used to separate upper and lower lungs. To improve the segmentation performance, an ensemble strategy with five models is exploited. We evaluated the clinical relevance of the proposed method compared with the radiographic assessment of the quality of lung edema (RALE) annotated by physicians. Mean intensities of segmented four regions indicate a positive correlation to the regional extent and density scores of pulmonary opacities based on the RALE. Therefore, the proposed method can accurately assist the quantification of regional pulmonary opacities of COVID-19 pneumonia patients.

2022 ◽  
Nilu Nagdev ◽  
Felix Akpojene Ogbo ◽  
Mansi Dhami ◽  
Thierno Diallo ◽  
David Lim ◽  

Abstract BackgroundFailure to use antenatal care (ANC) and inadequate receipt of components of ANC pose a significant risk for both the pregnant woman and baby. This study aimed to examine a regional analysis of factors associated with no or inadequate receipt of components of ANC services among Indian women.MethodInformation on 184,628 women of reproductive age 15-49 years from the 2015-16 India National Family Health Survey (NFSH-4) was used. Survey multinomial logistic regression analyses that adjust for cluster and survey weights were conducted to assess the socio-demographic and other factors associated with no or receipt of inadequate receipt of components of ANC in the six regions in India.ResultsAcross regions in India, 18% of women reported no ANC, and the prevalence of inadequate and adequate receipt of components of ANC in all six regions ranged from 16% to 43% and 34% to 81%, respectively. Our analyses revealed that in all six regions, poor households reported increased odds of receiving no or inadequate receipts of components of ANC. In all six regions, inadequate receipts of components of ANC was significantly higher among women who had limited knowledge about pregnancy complications and post-delivery complications. In all the six regions except the East region, women who delivered their babies at home reported higher odds of receiving no or inadequate receipts of components of ANC and women who had no postnatal checkup after delivery reported higher odds of receiving no or inadequate receipts of components of ANC in all regions except South, West and North East regions. Low levels of women's education and women who delivered their babies at home were associated with increased odds of receiving no or inadequate receipts of components of ANC in all six regions except North and East regions.ConclusionA better understanding of the factors associated and incorporating them into the short- and long-term intervention strategies, including free financial support from the Indian government to encourage pregnant women from lower socioeconomic groups to use health services across all regions.

Yanli Ji ◽  
Jie Xue ◽  
Kaiyang Zhong

The complex relationship between environmental regulation and green technology progress has always been a hot topic of research, especially in developing countries, where the impact of environmental regulation is important. Current research is mainly concerned with the impact of the single environmental regulation on technological progress and lacks study on the diversity of environmental regulations. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the heterogeneity of the effects of different types of environmental regulation on industrial green technology progress. As China’s scale of economy and pollution emissions are both large, and the government has also made great efforts in environmental regulation, this paper takes China as the example for analyses. We first use the EBM-GML method to measure the industrial green technology progress of 30 provinces in China from 2000 to 2018, and then apply the panel econometric model and threshold model to empirically investigate the influence of 3 types of environmental regulation. The results show that, first, the impacts of environmental regulation on industrial green technology progress are significantly different; specifically, command-based regulation has no direct significant impact, and autonomous regulation has played a positive role, and market-based regulation’s quadratic curve effect is significant, in which the cost-based and investment-based tool presents an inverted U-sharped and U-sharped, respectively. Second, there may be a weak alternative interaction among different types of environmental regulation. Third, a market-based regulatory tool has a threshold effect; with the upgrading of environmental regulation compliance, the effect of a cost-based tool is characterized by “promotion inhibition”, and that of an investment-based tool is “inhibition promotion”. Finally, the results of regional analysis are basically consistent with those of the national analysis. Based on the study, policy enlightenment is put forward to improve regional industrial green technology progress from the perspective of environmental regulation. This paper can provide a useful analytical framework for studying the relationship between environmental regulation and technological progress in a country, especially in developing countries.

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