placement depth
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Song Hee Oh ◽  
Sae Rom Lee ◽  
Jin-Young Choi ◽  
Hyo-Won Ahn ◽  
Seong-Hun Kim ◽  

AbstractAnchoring miniscrews used for a tissue bone borne maxillary expander (C-expander) can fail if they contact tooth roots or perforate the maxillary sinus. Cone beam computed tomography images were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the geometric factors of miniscrew placement in the palate that contribute to root proximity (RP) and sinus perforation (SP), and to investigate the differences of miniscrew placement depth (PD) and placement angle (PA) among the groups in each variable from 340 anchoring miniscrews on 70 patients whose C-expanders showed sufficient stability after palatal expansion for orthodontic treatment. Two types of miniscrews were used: a self-tapping miniscrew with 1.8 mm-in-diameter, and a self-drilling miniscrew with 1.6 mm-in-diameter. While the self-tapping larger diameter miniscrew influenced root proximity significantly, the screw location and PD affected the rate of sinus perforation. PA was significantly different between the right and left sides of the palate. The results of this study confirmed that root proximity and sinus perforation of anchoring miniscrews in a tissue bone borne palatal expander occurred due to certain risk factors, even when the palates were expanded successfully. Knowledge of these factors can help the clinician place miniscrews with less risk of root proximity or sinus perforation.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1543
Piotr Szulc ◽  
Jan Bocianowski ◽  
Kamila Nowosad ◽  
Henryk Bujak ◽  
Waldemar Zielewicz ◽  

Field experiments were carried out at the Department of Agronomy of the Poznań University of Life Sciences to determine the effect of the depth of NP fertilization placement in maize cultivation on the number of plants after emergence. The adopted assumptions were verified based on a six-year field experiment involving four depths of NP fertilizer application (A1—0 cm (broadcast), A2—5 cm (in rows), A3—10 cm (in rows), A4—15 cm (in rows)). The objective of this study was to assess NP fertilizer placement depth, in conjunction with the year, on the number of maize (Zea mays L.) plants after emergence using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model. The number of plants after emergence decreased with the depth of NP fertilization in the soil profile, confirming the high dependence of maize on phosphorus and nitrogen availability, as well as greater subsoil loosening during placement. The number of plants after emergence for the experimental NP fertilizer placement depths varied from 7.237 to 8.201 plant m−2 during six years, with an average of 7.687 plant m−2. The 61.51% of variation in the total number of plants after emergence was explained by years differences, 23.21% by differences between NP fertilizer placement depths and 4.68% by NP fertilizer placement depths by years interaction. NP fertilizer placement depth 10 cm (A3) was the most stable (ASV = 1.361) in terms of the number of plants after emergence among the studied NP fertilizer placement depths. Assuming that the maize kernels are placed in the soil at a depth of approx. 5 cm, the fertilizer during starter fertilization should be placed 5 cm to the side and below the kernel. Deeper NP fertilizer application in maize cultivation is not recommended. The condition for the use of agriculture progress, represented by localized fertilization, is the simultaneous recognition of the aspects of yielding physiology of new maize varieties and the assessment of their reaction to deeper seed placement during sowing.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 535
Piotr Szulc ◽  
Katarzyna Ambroży-Deręgowska ◽  
Hubert Waligóra ◽  
Iwona Mejza ◽  
Stanisław Grześ ◽  

This study presents the results of 3-year field trials, whose purpose was to assess the dynamics of dry matter accumulation by maize depending on the placement depth of a two-component (NP) mineral fertilizer in the soil layer, type of nitrogen fertilizer and date of its application. Weather conditions, mainly thermal in the early growing season, had a significant effect on maize responses to placement depth of phosphorus starting dose in the soil profile. In the initial stage of maize development, the temperature determined plant growth to a significantly higher extent than the sum of rainfall. The dry matter yield of ears and whole plants showed a clear reaction to starter phosphorus fertilization, but the effect of the depth of fertilizer placement varied over the years, indicating a depth of 5 cm and 10 cm as advisable and recommended for agricultural practice. The PFPFN (partial factor productivity of fertilizer nitrogen) and PFPFP (partial factor productivity of fertilizer phosphorus) indices confirmed the significant effect of fertilizer (NP) placement in the soil profile, indicating row fertilizer application (regardless of the depth) as recommended to improve the efficiency of maize fertilization. The SPAD (soil plant analysis development) leaf greenness index turned out to be a sensitive indicator of maize response to fertilizer (NP) placement depth in the soil profile.

Wilson de A. Orlando Junior ◽  
Haroldo C. Fernandes ◽  
Paulo R. Forastiere ◽  
Tiago M. Guazzelli ◽  
Guilherme de M. Araújo

ABSTRACT Adequate soil managements and use of agricultural machinery are essential for the economic viability of these practices and for the environmental preservation. In this context, sowing and fertilizer application practices are the most important activities, since they affect crop development and present high energy demand. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the energy demand of a tractor-planter-fertilizer unit for the sowing of common bean seeds in no-tillage system as a function of three soil water contents (28.7, 36.4, and 47.6%) and three soil fertilizer placement depths (0.06; 0.11 and 0.15 m). The final common bean grain yield was also evaluated. The lowest energy demand was found for the highest soil water content combined with the lowest soil fertilizer placement depth. The highest common bean grain yield was found for plants under soil water content of 36.4% and fertilizer placement depth of 0.11 m, reaching 4,186 kg ha-1.

2020 ◽  
Vol 118 (2) ◽  
pp. 133-148
Katrin Rychel ◽  
Katharina H. E. Meurer ◽  
Gunnar Börjesson ◽  
Monika Strömgren ◽  
Gizachew Tarekegn Getahun ◽  

Abstract Deep fertilizer placement is a proposed strategy to increase crop yield and nitrogen (N) use efficiency while decreasing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil to atmosphere. Our objective was to test three fertilization depth orientations to compare overall N use efficiency, based on a 2-year field trial on a mineral soil cropped with cereals in Uppsala, Sweden. The field was fertilized with ammonium nitrate at a rate of 120 kg ha−1 (2016) and 105 kg ha−1 (2017) and a deep fertilizer placement (DP) at 0.20 m was compared to a shallow placement (SP) at 0.07 m and a mixed-depth placement (MP) where fertilizer was halved between the depths of 0.07 and 0.20 m, and a non-fertilized control (NF). In 2016, compared to SP, MP and DP increased N content in harvested grain by 3.6% and 2.5% respectively, and DP increased grain yield by 11% (P < 0.05). In both years, N2O emissions were similar in DP and NF, whereas SP and MP emissions were similar but generally higher than those in DP and NF. Fertilizer-induced emission factors (EF) for the growing season of 2017 decreased with fertilizer placement depth and were 0.77 ± 0.07, 0.58 ± 0.03, and 0.10 ± 0.02 for SP, MP, and DP, repectively. Although deep N placement benefits are likely dependent on weather conditions and soil type, this strategy has a clear potential for mitigating N2O emissions without adversely affecting yield.

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