Legume Research - An International Journal
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Published By Agricultural Research Communication Center

0976-0571, 0250-5371
Updated Saturday, 18 September 2021

Author(s):  
Almas Mukhametov ◽  
Nana Bekhorashvili ◽  
Aleksei Avdeenko ◽  
Alexey Mikhaylov

Background: The combined use of green manure and legumes in binary legume-crop mixtures allows farmers to efficiently produce a sufficient amount of human food and animal feed. The purpose of this study is examine how biologization and the use of different soil cultivation techniques in legume cropping affects chernozem soil fertility and productivity of rotation crops. Methods: The studies were conducted between 2017 and 2019 in 3 crop rotations. The first (control) crop rotation comprised of a clean fallow phase, winter wheat, barley and sunflower. The second crop rotation was that of green-manure fallow (clover), winter wheat, barley, sunflower and clover with oilseed radish as green manure. The third crop rotation included alfalfa, winter wheat combined with alfalfa, followed by barley, followed by sunflower and alfalfa with oilseed radish as green manure. Result: The three-year data indicated that there was an improvement in the physical properties of soil. The water resistance of soil aggregates increased by 9.7 per cent. There was a steady tendency towards an increase in detritus content (1.5 times), the amount of soil aggregates (one-third) and water resistance of the soil aggregates (9 per cent).


Author(s):  
D. Chandra ◽  
S.K. Verma ◽  
A.K. Gaur ◽  
C. Bisht ◽  
A. Gautam ◽  
...  

Background: The development of superior hybrids is must to break the existing yield plateau ( less than 800 kg/ha) in pigeonpea and hence, the genetic mechanism governing the heterosis in pigeonpea must be decoded. Methods: The present study was laid down using randomized block design during kharif 2018-19 at GBPUAT, Pantnagar with 36 genotypes (8 parents and 28 F1 hybrids) of pigeonpea. The estimates of combining ability were evaluated by using the Griffing’s, Method II, Model I. The observations recorded for yield and related traits were subjected to the estimation of genetic diversity (GD) using the D2 statistics. The correlation between heterosis and different parameters viz., parental mean (PM), specific combining ability (SCA), mean of general combining ability (MGCA) and genetic diversity (GD) were estimated by using Pearson’s correlation. Result: High estimates of SCA variance and more than unity ( greater than 1) average degree of dominance for all the characters indicated the presence of over dominance. The SCA followed by MGCA were found to be most reliable parameters to predict the heterosis. The parents having high x low or high x high per se performance, good x poor GCA effects and with medium genetic diversity resulted in high frequency of heterotic hybrids.


Author(s):  
Sipan Soysal

Background: This study was carried out to determine the effects of different phosphorus doses on the flowering, yield and yield components of spring grown chickpea crop under the ecological conditions of Siirt province in the experimental field of Siirt University, Faculty of Agriculture, Field Crops Department during two seasons in 2018 and 2019. Methods: The study was carried out in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Before planting, 140 kg ha-1 of DAP fertilizer (18.46.0) was spreaded and incorporated into the soil with a rake. Following emergence of plants, TSP fertilizer (0.42.0) was spreaded to the plots at doses of 0, 30, 60, 90 kg ha-1 P2O5 into the mellow humid soil. Result: All observed parameters were effected from phosphorus application doses. Based on different P doses, two years’ average plant height, first pod height; main branch number, flower number per plant, pod number per plant, grain number per plant, 100 grain weight and grain yield values were determined as 51,25-55,91 cm; 29,17-35,98 cm; 2,10-2,97 piece plant-1; 39,00-57,86 piece plant-1; 18,87-27,92 piece plant-1; 18,00-27,33 piece plant-1; 29,92-33,41 g and 969-1565 kg ha-1, respectively. Highest values for all parameters were obtained from 60 kg ha-1 P2O5 but further dose (60 kg ha-1 P2O5) resulted with reduction from top values for all parameters.


Author(s):  
S.X. Xu

Background: Legumes are notable for wide distribution and indispensable food function. Majority of legume species are known to form mycorrhizal symbioses. The visualized and quantitative analysis legume mycorrhiza research has been reported although much attention has been paid in this field. Methods: This study reviewed and analyzed systematically the research characteristics and trends in legume mycorrhiza by bibliometric method based on the citation data collected from the Web of Science Core Collection by CiteSpace software. Result: The publication concerning legume mycorrhiza research increases rapidly and is still a hotspot. The most active collaboration countries are USA, France, Germany, China and Australia, whereas the two institutions of University of Western Australia and Chinese Academy of Sciences collaborate most with others. The intellectual structure analysis showed that the main intellectual base is nitrogen-fixing of cereal. The top ranked of keyword by bursts was rhizobia with strength value of 5.2899, which began from 2016 and ended in 2018. The distinction of 24 bursting keywords is relatively small, which showed that the research hotpot and trend should be interaction between legume plants and mycorrhizal fungi for improving nutrition absorption, N-fixation, resistance to stress and their mechanisms in future.


Author(s):  
M. Kasi Rao ◽  
M. Adinarayana ◽  
Gururaj Sunkad ◽  
A.K. Patibanda ◽  
T. Madhumathi ◽  
...  

Background: The yellow mosaic disease (YMD) creates a major hindrance and known to affect a number of grain leguminous crops in the Indian sub-continent. However, blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) is the most important grain legume crop which is affected widely by this disease. The disease is caused by a single stranded DNA containing begomovirus viz., Yellow mosaic virus (YMV) which is mainly transmitted through whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.). Symptoms include severe patho-physiological alterations characterized by the presence of bright chlorotic yellow patches interspersed with green areas on leaf lamina. The present study was aimed to determine the variability among disease causing agents in six different geographical isolates representing four states viz. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Odisha and Telangana states of southern India during the 2019 rabi season. Methods: The variability of YMV associated with YMD of blackgram was studied based on molecular characterization of partial DNA-A coat protein gene with subsequent nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic tree construction. Result: The synthetic primers designed for the partial DNA-A segment forms a distinct viral gene specific PCR product. The band size corresponding to CP ~704 bp was obtained for MYMV, whereas CP ~500 bp gene band was obtained for MYMIV. Further, phylogenetic analysis based on partial DNA-A gene sequences of six isolates with other isolates from GenBank formed into two unique clusters viz., MYMV and MYMIV. Overall, our study confirming that the begomovirus causing YMD of blackgram in southern India is explored to be as strains of MYMV and MYMIV.


Author(s):  
A. Ouji ◽  
S. Chekali ◽  
N. Chaieb ◽  
R. Hajri ◽  
M. Ben Younes

Background: In Tunisia, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second major food legume. The development of chickpea production is facing several biotic constraints. Ascochyta blight (ABL) caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr. is the most devastating disease and can cause complete yield losses under favorable conditions. In absence of chickpea variety totally resistance to ABL, some methods should be used to control and reduce this disease effects and help for its management. Therefore, this work was undertaken to evaluate the effect of row spacing and seed rate on ABL severity, growth and yield of chickpea. Methods: A split-plot design with three replicates was adopted to carry out this study during 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons. ‘Beja1’ chickpea variety was sown at 40 and 60 cm row spacing and at three seed rates (80, 110 and 140 kg ha-1). ABL severity was assessed visually on a 0-9 scale and agro morphological traits were measured. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Correlations between agronomic traits, row spacing, seed rate and ABL severity were investigated. Result: Results showed that most of the variation in disease severity was associated with seed rate (r=0.61). The highest ABL score severity was noted at 140 kg ha-1 rate. Over both years, wide row spacing and low seed rate reduced ABL severity. Chickpea sown under narrow row spacing (40 cm) produced higher grain yield (1014 and 1099.7 kg ha-1 for 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons, respectively). Grain yield was tending to decrease with increasing sowing rates but at a density higher than optimal, grain yields decrease. In this study, ABL disease severity reached a score of 3.7 and 4.3 in 2018 and 2019, respectively. These disease severities levels had little effect on yield.


Author(s):  
A. Ouji ◽  
M. Mechri ◽  
S. Wassli ◽  
K. Shiv ◽  
M. Kharrat

Background: In Tunisia, water deficit and heat stress during the end of cycle are more frequent and causes significant yield losses. Selection of short cycle lines could be a good solution to escape the effect of heat and drought during the end of cycle. Furthermore, there is little published information on the effect of the sowing date on yield and its components in lentils. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the sowing date on yield and its components of some lentil lines. The best productive and early lines will be selected and therefore proposed for registration in the official catalog of plant varieties. The availability of these varieties to farmers could increase lentil production. Methods: Sixteen genotypes of lentil out of which 14 were advanced lines and 2 were checks varieties were used in this study. The field experiment was conducted during the 2017-2018 cropping season at Kef research station located in a semi-arid zone in north western Tunisia. Genotypes were sown on December 15th, 2017 and February, 7th, 2018. Seventeen agro-morphological parameters were recorded. Result: Based on agro-morphological analysis, lentil lines exhibited considerable genetic variability. Among the tested lines, L3 line seem to be the earliest lines. It showed high yield as well in timely and late sown dates. This line deserves more attention to develop short-cycle and high yielding variety.


Author(s):  
A. Ouji ◽  
S. Chekali ◽  
M. Rouaissi

Background: In Tunisia, faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is the first major food legume. The development of faba bean production is facing several biotic constraints. Faba bean Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta fabae is one of the most destructive diseases of faba bean and can cause significant yield loss under favorable conditions. As only incomplete resistance ABL varieties are available, some agronomic practices should be applied to control and reduce Ascochyta blight incidence wherever possible. Therefore, this work was undertaken to evaluate the effect of spacing row and seed rate on ABL severity, growth and yield of faba bean. Methods: A split-plot design with three replications was adopted to carry out this study during 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons. ‘Bachaar’ faba bean variety was sown at 40 and 60 cm row spacing and at three seed rates (100, 140 and 200 kg ha-1). ABL severity was assessed visually on a 0-9 scale and agro-morphological traits were measured. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Correlations between agronomic traits, row spacing, seed rate and ABL severity were investigated. Result: Results showed that seed rate has a larger effect on yield than row spacing. In both cropping seasons, the highest grain yield was recorded in 60 cm row spacing and 140 kg ha-1 seed rate treatment. So, this treatment is recommended for obtaining high yield of faba bean. Most of the variation in disease severity was associated with seed rate (r=0.62). The highest ABL score severity was noted at 200 kg ha-1 rate. Over both years, wide row spacing and low seed rate reduced ABL severity. In this study, the small amounts of ABL disease (which reached a score of 5.3 and 4.7 in 2018 and 2019, respectively) had little or no effect on yield.


Author(s):  
B. Rupesh Kumar Reddy ◽  
K. Hariprasad Reddy ◽  
D. Mohan Reddy ◽  
P. Sudhakar ◽  
B. Ravindra Reddy

Background: Among several reasons for low productivity in mungbean, various biotic and abiotic factors play a major role. Although intensive research work has been done on genetic architecture of yield and yield attributes of mungbean but limited work was done on yield attributes along with water use efficiency (WUE) and heat stress tolerance related traits. The present study is aimed to identify the genetic potential of mungbean genotypes with high yield and drought and heat stress tolerance. Methods: The F2 seed was harvested from selfed F1 population during 2017-18 from three superior crosses viz., ML 267×LGG 528, MGG 390×LM 95 and LM 95×EC 362096. These crosses were selected based on their per se performance of yield, yield attributes and WUE related traits. Genetic analysis was carried out in F2 populations of three crosses for fourteen quantitative characters to identify the number of transgressive segregants in desirable direction. Result: A good number of transgressive segregants in desirable direction were observed for plant height, number of pods per cluster, harvest index, SLA, SLW and relative injury in the cross ML 267×LGG 528: for plant height, number of branches per plant, SCMR, SLA, SLW and relative injury in the cross MGG 390×LM 95 and for plant height, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant SCMR, SLA, SLW, relative injury and seed yield in the cross LM 95×EC 362096.


Author(s):  
V.K. Chaudhari ◽  
V.B. Patel ◽  
M.P. Patel ◽  
A.S. Bhanvadiya

Background: Pulses constitute the major source of dietary protein; therefore, it has ability to fulfil required protein recommended dietary allowance for vegetarian population of India. Pulse crop attack more than 200 insect pests and inflicting heavy damages at different growth stages that lead to significant economic losses to the farmers. The studies were conducted on green gram to find out the effective control measure of different crop stages against insect pests complex in green gram. Methods: The field experiment was laid out in a randomized block design and the consist 12 treatments with seed treatment and foliar sprays of insecticides at 50 per cent flowering stages then these treatments were replicated thrice at both years 2017 and 2018. Result: The experiments concluded that the reduction of sucking pests population like thrips, jassid and whitefly and larval population of Maruca vitrata and Helicoverpa armigera was found in seed treated with imidacloprid 48 FS and spray of flubendiamide at 50 per cent flowering stage in green gram with Rs. 10,678 net profit and 1:1.42 cost-benefit ratio.


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