welding process
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2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
pp. 012006
Simon Hirt ◽  
Jan Erik Battmer ◽  
Verena Wippo ◽  
Peter Jaeschke ◽  
Stefan Kaierle ◽  

Structures ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 36 ◽  
pp. 1068-1079
Dabin Yang ◽  
Xiangyi Sun ◽  
Guangen Zhou ◽  
Hongquan Jiang ◽  
Litai Sun ◽  

2022 ◽  
Jose Luis Meseguer Valdenebro ◽  
Eusebio José Martínez Conesa ◽  
Antonio Portoles

Abstract The aim of this work is to carry out the design of experiments that determine the influence of the welding parameters using Taguchi’s method on the grain size, HAZ, and the degree of dilution in 6063-T5 alloy. The welding process used is GMAW and the welding parameters are power, welding speed and bevel spacing. The study of the influence of the welding parameters on the measurements made in the welding (which are the size of heat affected zone, the degree of dilution, and the grain size) allows one to determine the quality of the joint . In addition, the welding parameter most influential in minimising the three measurements will be determined.

Ömer Üstündağ ◽  
Nasim Bakir ◽  
Sergej Gook ◽  
Andrey Gumenyuk ◽  
Michael Rethmeier

AbstractIt is already known that the laser beam welding (LBW) or hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) processes are sensitive to manufacturing tolerances such as gaps and misalignment of the edges, especially at welding of thick-walled steels due to its narrow beam diameter. Therefore, the joining parts preferably have to be milled. The study deals with the influence of the edge quality, the gap and the misalignment of edges on the weld seam quality of hybrid laser-arc welded 20-mm-thick structural steel plates which were prepared by laser and plasma cutting. Single-pass welds were conducted in butt joint configuration. An AC magnet was used as a contactless backing. It was positioned under the workpiece during the welding process to prevent sagging. The profile of the edges and the gap between the workpieces were measured before welding by a profile scanner or a digital camera, respectively. With a laser beam power of just 13.7 kW, the single-pass welds could be performed. A gap bridgeability up to 1 mm at laser-cut and 2 mm at plasma-cut samples could be reached respectively. Furthermore, a misalignment of the edges up to 2 mm could be welded in a single pass. The new findings may eliminate the need for cost and time-consuming preparation of the edges.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 634
Katarzyna Łyczkowska ◽  
Janusz Adamiec

The creep-resistant casting nickel alloys (e.g., Inconel 713C) belong to the group of difficult-to-weld materials that are using for precise element production; e.g., aircraft engines. In precision castings composed of these alloys, some surface defects can be observed, especially in the form of surface discontinuities. These defects disqualify the castings for use. In this paper, the results of technological tests of remelting and surfacing by the Tungsten Inert Gas method (TIG) in an argon shield and TecLine 8910 gas mixture are presented for stationary parts of aircraft engines cast from Inconel 713C alloy. Based on the results of metallographic studies, it was found that the main problem during remelting and pad welding of Inconel 713C castings was the appearance of hot microcracks. This type of defect was initiated in the partial melting zone, and propagated to the heat affected zone (HAZ) subsequently. The transvarestraint test was performed to determine the hot-cracking criteria. The results of these tests indicated that under the conditions of variable deformation during the remelting and pad welding process, the high-temperature brittleness range (HTBR) was equal 246 °C, and it was between 1053 °C and 1299 °C. In this range, the Inconel 713C was prone to hot cracking. The maximum deformation for which the material was resistant to hot cracking was equal to 0.3%. The critical strain speed (CSS) of 1.71 1/s, and the critical strain rate for temperature drop (CST), which in this case was 0.0055 1/°C, should be used as a criteria for assessing the tendency for hot cracking of the Inconel 713C alloy in the HTBR. The developed technological guidelines and hot-cracking criteria can be used to repair Inconel 713C precision castings or modify their surfaces using welding processes.

Yuxin Wang ◽  
Sansan Ao ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Anqi Wang ◽  
Mingpeng Cheng ◽  

Abstract Ultrasonic spot welding (USW) has attracted increasing attention due to its high- throughput solid-state bonding mechanism, which shows great potential in the semiconductor and automotive industry for the joining of metal sheets. However, the short welding cycle makes it challenging to effectively monitor the temperature history and deformation of the workpieces during the USW process, especially for the materials with some special properties. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis model for USW of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) with Cu interlayer was developed using ANSYS Workbench. The thermal-stress coupled phenomena including the heat generation and stress distribution during the welding process was simulated and analyzed. Firstly, the superelastic constitutive model of NiTi SMAs was constructed. The distribution of temperature and stress field was then obtained by thermal-stress analysis using the direct coupling method, and the superelasticity of SMAs was observed. The simulation results showed that the highest temperature occurred in the center of the welding area during USW, which is proportional to the welding time and inversely proportional to the clamping pressure. In addition, the maximum stress occurred at the center of the contact surface between upper NiTi and Cu interlayer. After that, the validity of the simulation results was verified by setting up a thermocouple temperature measurement platform to collect the temperature data, which exhibited a good agreement with the simulated results. The simulation procedure demonstrates its potential to predict temperature and stress distribution during USW process.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 543
Nkopane Angelina Ramaphoko ◽  
Samuel Skhosane ◽  
Nthabiseng Maledi

This paper presents the laser beam welding process of a lap joint between galvanized steel (Z225) and an aluminum alloy (A6000) from an IPG fiber laser. Welding of steel to aluminum has become popular in the automotive industry as a means of reducing the total vehicle body mass. This approach reduces fuel consumption and, ultimately, carbon emissions. Laser welding parameters used to control heat input for the study were laser power ranging between 800 and 1200 W, as well as laser welding speeds between 2 and 4 m/min. Distinct features of the dissimilar joints were microscopically examined. The SEM-EDS technique was employed to study the intermetallic phases along the Fe-Al interface. The outcome revealed the presence of “needle-like phases” and “island-shaped phases” at high heat inputs. Traces of both Fe2Al5 and FeAl3 phases were detected. For low heat input, there was evidence of insufficient fusion. Weld width was influenced by welding parameters and increased with an increase in heat input. Mechanical properties of the joints indicated that the microhardness values of the weld joints were higher than those of both base metals. The maximum tensile shear strength obtained was 1.79 kN for a sample produced at 1200 W and 3 m/min.

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