welding parameters
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2022 ◽  
Jose Luis Meseguer Valdenebro ◽  
Eusebio José Martínez Conesa ◽  
Antonio Portoles

Abstract The aim of this work is to carry out the design of experiments that determine the influence of the welding parameters using Taguchi’s method on the grain size, HAZ, and the degree of dilution in 6063-T5 alloy. The welding process used is GMAW and the welding parameters are power, welding speed and bevel spacing. The study of the influence of the welding parameters on the measurements made in the welding (which are the size of heat affected zone, the degree of dilution, and the grain size) allows one to determine the quality of the joint . In addition, the welding parameter most influential in minimising the three measurements will be determined.

2022 ◽  
Joonghyeon Shin ◽  
Minjung Kang

Abstract Battery cells are connected via bus-bars to meet performance requirements, such as power and capacity, and multiple layers of dissimilar materials functioning as anodes, cathodes, or bus-bars are overlapped and welded together. In laser welding, the formation of brittle intermetallic phases in the weld joint is inevitable and, in turn, deteriorates the mechanical properties. To obtain the desirable joint performance, appropriate welding parameters to avoid intermetallic phase formations and joint designs to release stress concentrations must be obtained. This study investigates the effects of lap configurations and process parameters on the tensile-shear load, T-peel load, and composition distribution when multi-layered joints of dissimilar materials are produced by laser welding. Two layers of 0.4 mm Al sheets were welded with a single 0.2 mm Cu sheet, which was emulated using electric vehicle battery interconnects. The results show that the penetration depth varied in accordance with the lap configuration even under the same heat input condition. The lap configuration and welding parameters influenced the composition distribution of the welds, as they altered the solidification rate, number of Cu/Al contact interfaces, and location of the high-density material. The failure load of the T-peel specimens was always lower than that of the tensile-shear specimens except for the Cu−Al−Al lap configuration. The T-peel load of the Cu−Al−Al lap configuration was similar to that of the tensile-shear load. When the stress-concentrated joint was homogeneous, it was more robust.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 543
Nkopane Angelina Ramaphoko ◽  
Samuel Skhosane ◽  
Nthabiseng Maledi

This paper presents the laser beam welding process of a lap joint between galvanized steel (Z225) and an aluminum alloy (A6000) from an IPG fiber laser. Welding of steel to aluminum has become popular in the automotive industry as a means of reducing the total vehicle body mass. This approach reduces fuel consumption and, ultimately, carbon emissions. Laser welding parameters used to control heat input for the study were laser power ranging between 800 and 1200 W, as well as laser welding speeds between 2 and 4 m/min. Distinct features of the dissimilar joints were microscopically examined. The SEM-EDS technique was employed to study the intermetallic phases along the Fe-Al interface. The outcome revealed the presence of “needle-like phases” and “island-shaped phases” at high heat inputs. Traces of both Fe2Al5 and FeAl3 phases were detected. For low heat input, there was evidence of insufficient fusion. Weld width was influenced by welding parameters and increased with an increase in heat input. Mechanical properties of the joints indicated that the microhardness values of the weld joints were higher than those of both base metals. The maximum tensile shear strength obtained was 1.79 kN for a sample produced at 1200 W and 3 m/min.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Tushar Sonar ◽  
Visvalingam Balasubramanian ◽  
Sudersanan Malarvizhi ◽  
Thiruvenkatam Venkateswaran ◽  
Dhenuvakonda Sivakumar

Purpose The primary objective of this investigation is to optimize the constricted arc tungsten inert gas (CA-TIG) welding parameters specifically welding current (WC), arc constriction current (ACC), ACC frequency (ACCF) and CA traverse speed to maximize the tensile properties of thin Inconel 718 sheets (2 mm thick) using a statistical technique of response surface methodology and desirability function for gas turbine engine applications. Design/methodology/approach The four factor – five level central composite design (4 × 5 – CCD) matrix pertaining to the minimum number of experiments was chosen in this investigation for designing the experimental matrix. The techniques of numerical and graphical optimization were used to find the optimal conditions of CA-TIG welding parameters. Findings The thin sheets of Inconel 718 (2 mm thick) can be welded successfully using CA-TIG welding process without any defects. The joints welded using optimized conditions of CA-TIG welding parameters showed maximum of 99.20%, 94.45% and 73.5% of base metal tensile strength, yield strength and elongation. Originality/value The joints made using optimized CA-TIG welding parameters disclosed 99.20% joint efficiency which is comparatively 20%–30% superior than conventional TIG welding process and comparable to costly electron beam welding and laser beam welding processes. The parametric mathematical equations were designed to predict the tensile properties of Inconel 718 joints accurately with a confidence level of 95% and less than 4.5% error. The mathematical relationships were also developed to predict the tensile properties of joints from the grain size (secondary dendritic arm spacing-SDAS) of fusion zone microstructure.

Artemii Bernatskyi

Abstract: In this study, the method of determining the influence of laser welding parameters on the quality provisions of welded joints made with multicomponent heat-resistant alloys was developed. The regularities of the formation of the welded joint structure of multicomponent heat-resistant alloys obtained by laser welding have been studied. The causes and methodological approaches to eliminate defects in the form of hot cracks were identified. Keywords: laser welding, multicomponent alloys, heat-resistant alloys, welded joints, quality

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 288
Amir Hossein Baghdadi ◽  
Zainuddin Sajuri ◽  
Azadeh Keshtgar ◽  
Nurulakmal Mohd Sharif ◽  
Armin Rajabi

The 5083 and 6061(T6) aluminum (Al) alloys are widely used in transportation industries and the development of structural designs because of their high toughness and high corrosion resistance. Friction stir welding (FSW) was performed to produce the dissimilar welded joint of Al5083-Al 6061(T6) under different welding parameters. However, softening behavior occurred in the friction stir welded (FSWed) samples because of grain coarsening or the dissolution of precipitation-hardening phases in the welding zone. Consequently, this research intended to investigate the effect of the post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) method on the mechanical property improvement of the dissimilar FSWed Al5083-Al6061(T6) and governing abnormal grain growth (AGG) through different welding parameters. The results showed PWHT enhanced the mechanical properties of dissimilar joints of Al5083-Al6061(T6). AGG was obtained in the microstructure of PWHTed joints, but appropriate PWHT could recover the dissolved precipitation-hardening particle in the heat-affected zone of the as-welded joint. Further, the tensile strength of the dissimilar joint increased from 181 MPa in the as-welded joint to 270 MPa in the PWHTed joint, showing 93% welding efficacy.

2021 ◽  
pp. 152808372110575
Muktar S Hussen ◽  
Yordan K Kyosev ◽  
Kathrin Pietsch ◽  
Stefan Rothe ◽  
Abera K Kabish

Using a lapped seam, PVC-coated hybrid textiles with uniform thickness were bonded by continuous ultrasonic welding and conventional joining method with the help of hot air tape welding technique for weather protection purposes. Three fundamental sewing parameters at two distinct levels and three primary welding parameters at three levels based on 6 and 12 mm welding widths were used. To consider the effect of welding and sewing parameters on seam strength, full factorial designs of experiments were designed, fabricated, and tested. The thermal behavior and possibility of chemical conversion in the welding zone under the influence of ultrasonic vibrations were examined. Variation in width of heat-affected zone of weld seam was measured. The seam strength of ultrasonic weld seam compared with that of conventional seams, and superior seam strength yielding parametric levels were assessed. The parametric influence of both joining techniques on seam quality and their tendencies in the relationship were analyzed statistically. The weld seam strength (1256.392 and 2116.93 N/50 mm) was optimized numerically and identified its trend with the variation of the weld seam. The discovered relationship led to the conclusion that the variation in the weld seam can be used to estimate the tensile strength of the weld seam through the developed effective numerical model as a non-destructive testing method, and its outcome was successful as a destructive testing method. The result shows that the ultrasonic weld seam provided a higher tensile strength ( > 75%) than the conventional seam for both evaluated welding widths and obtained statistically significant results.

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