exercise training
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (1) ◽  
Amelie Bernier-Jean ◽  
Nadim A Beruni ◽  
Nicola P Bondonno ◽  
Gabrielle Williams ◽  
Armando Teixeira-Pinto ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Igor Longobardi ◽  
Danilo Marcelo Leite do Prado ◽  
Karla Fabiana Goessler ◽  
Gersiel Nascimento de Oliveira Júnior ◽  
Danieli Castro Oliveira de Andrade ◽  

In the current scenario, in which an elevated number of COVID-19 survivors present with severe physical deconditioning, exercise intolerance, persistent symptoms, and other post-acute consequences, effective rehabilitation strategies are of utmost relevance. In this study, we report for the first time the effect of home-based exercise training (HBET) in a survivor patient from critical COVID-19 illness. A 67-year-old woman who had critical COVID-19 disease [71 days of hospitalization, of which 49 days were in the intensive care unit (ICU) with invasive mechanical ventilation due to respiratory failure] underwent a 10-week HBET aiming to recovering overall physical condition. Before and after the intervention, we assessed cardiopulmonary parameters, skeletal muscle strength and functionality, fatigue severity, and self-reported persistent symptoms. At baseline (3 months after discharge), she presented with severe impairment in cardiorespiratory functional capacity (<50% age predicted VO2peak). After the intervention, remarkable improvements in VO2peak (from 10.61 to 15.48 mL·kg−1·min−1, Δ: 45.9%), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES; from 1.0 to 1.3 L·min−1, Δ: 30.1%), HR/VO2 slope (from 92 to 52 bpm·L−1, Δ: −43.5%), the lowest VE/VCO2 ratio (from 35.4 to 32.9 L·min−1, Δ: −7.1%), and exertional dyspnea were observed. In addition, handgrip strength (from 22 to 27 kg, Δ: 22.7%), 30-s Sit-to-Stand (30-STS; from 14 to 16 repetitions, Δ:14.3%), Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG; from 8.25 to 7.01 s, Δ: −15%) performance and post-COVID functional status (PCFS) score (from 4 to 2) were also improved from baseline to post-intervention. Self-reported persistent symptoms were also improved, and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score decreased (from 4 to 2.7) from baseline to post-intervention. This is the first evidence that a semi-supervised, HBET program may be safe and potentially effective in improving cardiorespiratory and physical functionality in COVID-19 survivors. Controlled studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

Marton Vezer ◽  
Ágota Demeter ◽  
Maria Szekeres ◽  
Attila Jósvai ◽  
Bálint Bányai ◽  

During aerobic exercise, hemodynamic alterations occure; while blood flow in skeletal muscle arteries increases, it decreases in visceral vessels due to mesenterial vasoconstriction. However, maintaining renal blood flow during intensive sport is also a priority. Our aim was to investigate the changes of vascular reactivity and histology of isolated renal artery of male and female rats in response to swim-training. Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: male sedentary (MSed), male trained (MTr), female sedentary (FSed), and female trained (FTr). Trained animals underwent a 12-week-long intensive swimming program. Vascular function of isolated renal artery segments was examined by wire myography. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was lower in FSed compared to MSed animals, and it was decreased by training in male but not in female animals. Inhibition of cyclooxygenases by indomethacin reduced contraction in both sedentary groups, and in MTr but not in FTr animals. Inhibition of nitric oxide production increased contraction in both trained groups. Acetylcholine induced relaxation was similar in all experimental groups showing predominant NO-dependency. Elastin and smooth muscle cell actin density was reduced in female rats after aerobic training. This study shows that, as a result of 12-weeks-long training, there are sex differences in renal arterial responses following exercise training. Swimming moderates renal artery vasoconstriction in male animals, while it depresses elastic fiber and smooth muscle actin density in females.

2022 ◽  
Dean Minnock ◽  
Giosuè Annibalini ◽  
Giacomo Valli ◽  
Roberta Saltarelli ◽  
Mauricio Krause ◽  

Brittany Rose Allman ◽  
Beverly J. Spray ◽  
Renny S. Lan ◽  
Aline Andres ◽  
Elisabet Børsheim

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise during pregnancy in sedentary women with obesity on longitudinal changes in long-chain acylcarnitine (LC-AC) concentrations. We hypothesized that exercise training would significantly decrease circulating LC-ACs throughout gestation compared to a non-exercise control group. Pregnant women with obesity considered otherwise healthy [n=80, mean ± SD; body mass index (BMI): 36.9±5.7 kg/m2] were randomized into an exercise (n=40, aerobic/resistance 3x/week, ~13th gestation week until birth) or a non-exercise control (n=40) group. At gestation week 12.2 ± 0.5 and 36.0 ± 0.4, a submaximal exercise test was conducted, and indirect calorimetry was used to measure relative resting energy expenditure (REE), as well as respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at rest. Fasting blood samples were collected and analyzed for LC-AC concentrations. Fitness improved with prenatal exercise training; however, exercise training did not affect circulating LC-AC. When groups were collapsed, LC-ACs decreased during gestation (combined groups, P < 0.001), whereas REE (kcal·kg-1·d-1, P = 0.008) increased. However, average REE relative to FFM (kcal·kgFFM-1·d-1) and RER did not change. There was an inverse relationship between the change in RER and all LC-ACs (except C18:2) throughout gestation (C14: r = -0.26, P = 0.04; C16: r = -0.27, P = 0.03; C18:1: r = -0.28, P = 0.02). In summary, a moderate intensity exercise intervention during pregnancy in women with obesity did not alter LC-ACs concentrations versus control, indicating that the balance between LCFA availability and oxidation neither improved nor worsened with an exercise intervention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Derek L. Tran ◽  
Hannah Gibson ◽  
Andrew J. Maiorana ◽  
Charlotte E. Verrall ◽  
David W. Baker ◽  

Background: Despite developments in surgical techniques and medical care, people with a Fontan circulation still experience long-term complications; non-invasive therapies to optimize the circulation have not been established. Exercise intolerance affects the majority of the population and is associated with worse prognosis. Historically, people living with a Fontan circulation were advised to avoid physical activity, but a small number of heterogenous, predominantly uncontrolled studies have shown that exercise training is safe—and for unique reasons, may even be of heightened importance in the setting of Fontan physiology. The mechanisms underlying improvements in aerobic exercise capacity and the effects of exercise training on circulatory and end-organ function remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, the optimal methods of exercise prescription are poorly characterized. This highlights the need for large, well-designed, multi-center, randomized, controlled trials.Aims and Methods: The Fontan Fitness Intervention Trial (F-FIT)—a phase III clinical trial—aims to optimize exercise prescription and delivery in people with a Fontan circulation. In this multi-center, randomized, controlled study, eligible Fontan participants will be randomized to either a 4-month supervised aerobic and resistance exercise training program of moderate-to-vigorous intensity followed by an 8-month maintenance phase; or usual care (control group). Adolescent and adult (≥16 years) Fontan participants will be randomized to either traditional face-to-face exercise training, telehealth exercise training, or usual care in a three-arm trial with an allocation of 2:2:1 (traditional:telehealth:control). Children (&lt;16 years) will be randomized to either a physical activity and exercise program of moderate-to-vigorous intensity or usual care in a two-arm trial with a 1:1 allocation. The primary outcome is a change in aerobic exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake) at 4-months. Secondary outcomes include safety, and changes in cardiopulmonary exercise testing measures, peripheral venous pressure, respiratory muscle and lung function, body composition, liver stiffness, neuropsychological and neurocognitive function, physical activity levels, dietary and nutritional status, vascular function, neurohormonal activation, metabolites, cardiac function, quality of life, musculoskeletal fitness, and health care utilization. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, 4-months, and 12-months. This manuscript will describe the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in the Fontan circulation and the rationale and protocol for the F-FIT.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 8
Anja Roth ◽  
Martin Sattelmayer ◽  
Chloé Schorderet ◽  
Simone Gafner ◽  
Lara Allet

Background: After a diet- or surgery induced weight loss almost 1/3 of lost weight consists of fat free mass (FFM) if carried out without additional therapy. Exercise training and a sufficient supply of protein, calcium and vitamin D is recommended to reduce the loss of FFM. Objective: To investigate the effect of exercise training, protein, calcium, and vitamin D supplementation on the preservation of FFM during non-surgical and surgical weight loss and of the combination of all interventions together in adults with obesity. Methods: A systematic review was performed with a pairwise meta-analysis and an exploratory network meta-analysis according to the PRISMA statement. Results: Thirty studies were included in the quantitative analysis. The pairwise meta-analysis showed for Exercise Training + High Protein vs. High Protein a moderate and statistically significant effect size (SMD 0.45; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.86), for Exercise Training + High Protein vs. Exercise Training a high but statistically not significant effect size (SMD 0.91; 95% CI -0.59 to 2.41) and for Exercise Training alone vs. Control a moderate but statistically not significant effect size (SMD 0.67; 95% CI -0.25 to 1.60). In the exploratory network meta-analysis three interventions showed statistically significant effect sizes compared to Control and all of them included the treatment Exercise Training. Conclusions: Results underline the importance of exercise training and a sufficient protein intake to preserve FFM during weight loss in adults with obesity. The effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation remains controversial and further research are needed.

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