Moderate Intensity Exercise
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1364
Author(s):  
Kefeng Zheng ◽  
Liye Zou ◽  
Gao-Xia Wei ◽  
Tao Huang

The purpose of the study was to systematically review the evidence on the effects of an acute bout of exercise on concurrent performance of core executive function (EF) during exercise in adults. Four electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and SportDiscus) were searched from inception dates to 30 December 2020. The literature searches were conducted using the combinations of two groups of relevant items related to exercise and executive function. Articles were limited to human studies in adults. The search process, study selection, data extraction, and study quality assessments were carried out independently by two researchers. A total of 4899 studies were identified. Twenty-two studies met our inclusion criteria. Of the 42 reported outcomes in the 22 studies, 13 (31%) of the 42 outcomes showed that core EF performance was enhanced during exercise and 14 (33%) found that core EF performance did not differ from control conditions. Fifteen (36%) found that core EF performance was impaired. Notably, improved EF performances tend to be observed during moderate-intensity exercise, whereas impaired EF performances were more likely to be observed at vigorous-high intensity. The review suggests mixed findings regarding the effects of an acute bout of exercise on concurrent performance of core EF. Exercise intensity seems to influence the effects. The underlying neural mechanisms remain to be elucidated.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Takaaki Komiyama ◽  
Ryoma Goya ◽  
Chisa Aoyama ◽  
Yusuke Yokota ◽  
Yasushi Naruse ◽  
...  

AbstractAcute aerobic exercise increases the brain cortical activity in alpha frequency. Eye closure also increases alpha activity. However, whether the two have an additive or a synergistic effect on alpha activity has never been explored. This study observed electroencephalography (EEG) from fifteen participants seated on the cycle ergometer before, during, and after a cycling exercise with the eyes open and with them closed. Exercise intensity was set to a target heart rate (120–130 bpm), corresponding to light-to-moderate intensity exercise. Each epoch was 6 min and the last 4 min (eyes closed in the first 2 min and eyes open in the second 2 min) were analyzed. The EEG power spectrum densities were calculated for alpha frequency band activity (8–13 Hz). At rest, alpha activity was significantly greater with the eyes closed than open. Exercise significantly increased alpha activity in both eye conditions. More importantly, in the occipital site, the alpha-increasing effect of their combination was significantly greater than the sum of the effect of each, showing a synergistic effect. We concluded that acute light-to-moderate intensity exercise with the eyes closed has a synergistic effect on alpha activity.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3556
Author(s):  
Kamila Płoszczyca ◽  
Robert Gajda ◽  
Miłosz Czuba

The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of six days of tri-sodium phosphate (SP) supplementation on the cardiorespiratory system and gross efficiency (GE) during exercise under hypoxia in cyclists. Twenty trained male cyclists received SP (50 mg·kg−1 of fat-free mass/day) or placebo for six days in a randomized, cross-over study, with a three-week washout period between supplementation phases. Before and after each supplementation phase, the subjects performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion under normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 16%, ~2500 m). It was observed that short-term SP supplementation led to a decrease in heart rate, an increase in stroke volume, and an improvement in oxygen pulse (VO2/HR) during low and moderate-intensity exercise under hypoxia. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the serum inorganic phosphate level by 8.7% (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in serum calcium levels. GE at a given workload did not change significantly after SP supplementation. These results indicated that SP promotes improvements in the efficiency of the cardiorespiratory system during exercise in a hypoxic environment. Thus, SP supplementation may be beneficial for endurance exercise in hypoxia.


2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 372-372
Author(s):  
Elizabeth Ott ◽  
Clay A Cavinder ◽  
Caleb O Lemley ◽  
Thu Dinh

Abstract Oxidative stress by physical stressors negatively impacts the performance of equine athletes. The present study was aimed to determine oxidative biomarkers in blood plasma of exercising horses. Stock-type horses were subject to a standardized moderate intensity exercise protocol following NRC guidelines 3 times per wk for 8 wk. Blood plasma was collected in wk 1, 2, 7, and 8 immediately before and 0, 30, 60, and 90 min after exercise and analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). Data were analyzed as repeated measures with wk, d, time, and their interactions as fixed effects. The TAC on d 2 (0.40 mM trolox) were 7.5% greater than that on d 3 (P = 0.013). There were wk × d × time interactions for SOD, TBARS, and GPx (P &lt; 0.001). The TBARS remained at d-1 wk-1 pre-exercise baseline (2.70 µM malondialdehyde) for most collection times within wk 1, 7, and 8 (P ≥ 0.058); however, TBARS increased by 0.24 to 0.41 µM on d 2 of wk 2 post-exercise (P &lt; 0.001) and remained similarly elevated on d 3 pre- and immediately post-exercise (P &lt; 0.001). The GPx similarly remained at baseline (172.57 µM/min; P ≥ 0.621) but increased by 48.18 to 83.36 µM/min at most collection times on d 1 and 2 of wk 2 (P ≤ 0.023). The SOD remained at baseline (167.21 µM/min; P ≥ 0.055) until increasing by 11.28 to 15.61 µM/min at 30 min post-exercise on d 1, wk 1 and at most collection times on d 3, wk 8 (P ≤ 0.043). The current study indicates the time-dependent nature of oxidative stress in relation to persistent stressors such as exercise.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kazuki Hyodo ◽  
Kazuya Suwabe ◽  
Daisuke Yamaguchi ◽  
Hideaki Soya ◽  
Takashi Arao

There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that one bout of moderate-intensity exercise enhances executive functions in older adults. However, in terms of safety, feasibility, and continuity, older individuals prefer light, easy, and fun exercises to moderate and stressful exercises for improving executive functions. Therefore, light-intensity aerobic dance exercise (LADE) could be suitable if it produces potential benefits related to executive functions. As for continuous vs. intermittent exercise, intermittent exercise has received a lot of attention, as it results in greater effects on mood and executive functions than continuous exercise; however, its effects in older adults remain uncertain. Thus, in this study, we aimed to examine the acute effects of intermittent LADE (I-LADE) in comparison with those of continuous LADE (C-LADE) on mood and executive functions. Fifteen healthy older adults participated in 10-min I-LADE and C-LADE conditions on separate days. Perceived enjoyment following exercise was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES). The pleasantness of the mood during exercise and pleasure and arousal levels after exercise were assessed using the Feeling Scale and Two-Dimensional Mood Scale, respectively. Executive function was assessed using the Stroop task before and after exercise. As a result, pleasantness of the mood during exercise and exercise enjoyment levels were greater in I-LADE than in C-LADE. Arousal and pleasure levels and Stroop task performance increased after both LADEs and did not differ between the two exercise conditions. These findings suggest that although enhancement of mood and executive functions after exercise did not differ between C-LADE and I-LADE, I-LADE could be more enjoyable and fun than C-LADE. This study will help in the development of exercise conditions that can enable the elderly to enhance their executive functions in a fun way.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Felicia Manocchio ◽  
Cassandra J. Lowe

Background: The beneficial effects of both single-session bouts of aerobic exercise and therapeutic exercise interventions on the cortical regions associated with top-down attentional control [i.e., prefrontal cortex (PFC)] have been well documented. However, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise can be used to buffer against suppressive influences on the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC).Objective: The current study sought to determine whether a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise can offset the expected suppressive effects of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC).Methods: Twenty-two right-handed participants (aged 19–30) completed a 20-minute movement-only control session [10% heart rate reserve (HRR)] and moderate intensity (50% HRR) exercise in a counterbalanced order. Following each exercise session, participants received active cTBS to the left dlPFC. Changes in executive functions were quantified using a Flanker paradigm employed at baseline, post-exercise and post-cTBS time points. Additionally, EEG was used to measure changes in event-related potential components related to inhibitory control (i.e., N2) and attentional control (i.e., P3) during the flanker task.Results: Behavioral results from the flanker task revealed a significant improvement in task performance following an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise. Furthermore, the effect of cTBS in both the movement-only control and moderate intensity conditions were non-significant. Similarly, EEG data from P3b and N2 ERP components revealed no changes to amplitude across time and condition. P3b latency data revealed a significant effect of time in both the moderate intensity and movement-only conditions, such that P3b latencies were significantly shorter across time points. Latency data within the N2 ERP component revealed no significant interactions or main effects.Conclusion: The findings of the current study provide tentative support for the hypothesis that both moderate and light intensity exercise promote cortical buffering against the suppressive effects of cTBS targeting the dlPFC. However, in the absence of a no-movement control, a lack of expected suppressive effects of cTBS cannot be ruled out.


Author(s):  
Alamgir Khan ◽  
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt ◽  
Shahzaman Khan ◽  
Sobia Nazir ◽  
Ejaz Asghar ◽  
...  

This particular research study was basically carried out for the purpose to examine the impact of low intensity exercise on two particular liver enzymes i.e. alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP). 20 Non sportsmen were selected as subjects of the study (n=20, age 20 to 30 years (20.95±3.79), Body Mass Index (BMI) from 18 to 30 (25.90±5.54). Similarly the subjects were divided into two groups (Experimental Group and Control Group) through the application of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and measurement of Maximum Heart Rate (MHR). 12 weeks self-made low intensity exercise protocol was applied to an experimental group.  5ml blood was collected from all subjects to measure the effect of low intensity exercise on ALT and ALP. The data of pre and post-test were processed through SPSS version 24. Based on analysis and findings, the researcher concluded that in experimental group (EXG) the level of ALT and ALP was found significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to control group (CG). Based on conclusion, it is hereby recommended by the researcher that for the purpose to promote the functional capacity of liver, low as well as moderate intensity exercise should be performed on daily basis. In addition, in this study due to lack of financial resources, two basic liver enzymes i.e.ALT and ALP were measured, therefore the other enzymes like as AST and bilirubin also need to be examined in such other research studies.


Author(s):  
Noor Muhammad ◽  
Alamgir Khan ◽  
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt ◽  
Shahzaman Khan ◽  
Sobia Nazir ◽  
...  

This research study was primarily conducted for the purpose to examine the effect of moderate intensity exercise on lungs functions (IRV & ERV) in young athletes. The participant of the study was randomly selected from the Department of Sports Sciences & Physical Education, Gomal University, KP Pakistan. A written informed consent was taken from all the subjects. A self-made, 08 weeks exercise protocols was applied on the selected subjects. Pretest and posttest data were collected by using spirometer and other helping devices. The collected data were tabulated and were analyzed by using various statistical tools. On the basis of data analysis and findings the researcher concluded there is significant effect of 08 weeks moderate intensity exercise on lungs functions (IRV & ERV).      


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuning Hou ◽  
Renyan Ma ◽  
Song Gao ◽  
Keneilwe Kenny Kaudimba ◽  
Hongmei Yan ◽  
...  

BackgroundHyperuricemia (HUA) is a metabolic disease by purine metabolism disorders. It is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Studies have shown that exercise can effectively reduce serum uric acid (SUA), but the optimal exercise dose, intensity, and mode of exercise for improving HUA have not been verified in clinical studies. Therefore, this study aims to explore the effect of different exercise intensities in improving SUA of patients with HUA.Methods and AnalysisA randomized, single-blind, parallel controlled trial will be conducted in this study. 186 HUA patients who meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly divided into a 1:1:1 ratio (1): control group (2), low-intensity exercise group (brisk walking, 57-63% maximum heart rate, 150 min/week, 12 months), and (3) moderate-intensity exercise group (jogging, 64-76% maximum heart rate, 150 min/week, 12 months). The three groups of subjects will receive the same health education and prohibition of high-purine diet during the intervention period. The primary outcomes will be SUA concentration, SUA concentration change (mg/dL), SUA change rate (%), and the proportion of HUA patients. Secondary outcomes will include anthropometric parameters (body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, BMI); physiological indicators (blood pressure, grip, vital capacity, maximum oxygen); biochemical indicators (blood lipid, blood sugar, liver enzyme, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen). Each group of patients will go through an assessment at baseline, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months.DiscussionThis study will evaluate the effect of 12-month low-intensity exercise and moderate-intensity exercise on HUA patients. We hypothesize that both low-intensity and moderate-intensity exercise would improve HUA as compared with no-exercise control, and that moderate-intensity exercise would be more effective than low-intensity exercise in improving HUA. These results can provide a basis for the current physical activity guidelines for HUA’s healthy lifestyle management.Ethics and DisseminationThis study has been approved by the Ethical Review Committee of the Shanghai University of Sport (approval number: 102772020RT005). Informed consent will be obtained from all participants or their guardians. The authors intend to submit the study findings to peer-reviewed journals or academic conferences to be published.Clinical Trial RegistrationChinese Clinical Trial Registry, identifier ChiCTR2100042643.


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