Birth Asphyxia
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Neus Carrilero ◽  
Albert Dalmau-Bueno ◽  
Anna García-Altés

Abstract Background Socioeconomic position (SEP) powerfully affects health status in the childhood population. However, the knowledge of which diseases are more affected by SEP and whose outcomes could be improved by having a more equitable society remains uncertain on a population basis. Methods We measured socioeconomic and gender inequalities in the pre-COVID-19 era for 29 diseases in the entire childhood population in Catalonia to identify which diseases are most impacted by inequalities. This population-based study included 1,449,816 children under 15 years old from 2014 to 2017 (48.52% girls) and each of their registered diagnoses within the Catalonia National Health System. We calculated frequency measures by SEP and their sex ratios for each disease. We estimated four regression-based inequality measures: slope index of inequality, relative index of inequality (RII), absolute population-attributable fraction, and population-attributable fraction. Results Twenty-five of the 29 diseases examined showed SEP inequalities. The diseases with the greatest inequalities in both sexes were tuberculosis, obesity, adjustment and anxiety disorders, essential hypertension, poisoning, short gestation, low birth weight, foetal growth retardation and intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia and trauma (RII ≥ 2.0); only food allergy showed the opposite pattern (RII < 1.0). Overall, 80,188 (7.80%) of the disease events in boys and 74,921 (8.88%) in girls would be avoided if all children had the same disease rate as those in the medium-high SEP group, with tuberculosis, intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia and trauma, obesity, and short gestation, low birth weight, foetal growth retardation being those that could be reduced the most in relative terms, and dermatitis, injuries, acute bronquitis, and being overweight those that could be reduced the most in absolute terms. Girls present higher RII than boys for respiratory allergy, asthma, dermatitis, being overweight, and obesity (p < 0.05). In contrast, boys showed higher RII compared to girls only in congenital anomalies (p < 0.05). Conclusions Socioeconomic and gender inequalities are widely present in childhood health. This indicates that SEP plays a common role in their development although it varies in magnitude according to each disease. It is also a phenomenon that comprises all SEP groups in society. Action needs to be taken to ensure a fairer start in life in terms of health.


Author(s):  
Shamnad Madathil ◽  
Mayank Priyadarshi ◽  
Surya Antony ◽  
Abdul Rauf KK ◽  
Shaji Thomas John

Heliyon ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. e07256
Author(s):  
Ermias Sisay Chanie ◽  
Abebew Yeshambe Alemu ◽  
Demewoze Kefale Mekonen ◽  
Biruk Demissie Melese ◽  
Biniam Minuye Birhan ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (5) ◽  
pp. 844
Author(s):  
Suresh Goyal ◽  
Anuradha Sanadhya ◽  
Juhi Mehrotra ◽  
Bhupesh Jain ◽  
Ritika Kachhwaha

Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is standard-of-care for infants with moderate and severe HIE in developed countries; TH has been shown to decrease the risk of brain injury in asphyxiated newborns. Observations were like: 1) Asses morbidity and mortality in neonates with moderate and severe birth asphyxia treated with TH and 2) Asses neurological outcome in neonates.Methods: A RCT was done in NICU of Balchikitsalaya, RNTMC, Udaipur. Phase changing material, FS 21, FS 29 used to provide TH for 72 hours, started within 6 hours of birth and neurological outcome was assessed.Results: Total 60 neonates were enrolled 30 cases given TH and 30 control not given TH. Neurological assessment on basis of Thompson scoring, done on admission, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours for both groups. At 48 hours, mean score in controls 14.5±1.67 and cases 11.47±2.34 (p<0.05). At discharge, mean score for controls was 11.31±3.67 and for cases was 5.24±2.72 (p<0.005). Mortality was 4 (13.3%) in cases and 11 (36.7%) in control group. Among 45 survivors, 25 (55.5%) required anticonvulsant at discharge; 15 from controls, 10 from cases group.Conclusions: There was significant decrease in mortality in birth asphyxia babies given TH as compared to babies not given TH. Also, significant improvement in Thompson score among the cooled neonates at and after 48 hours of age suggestive of better immediate neurological outcome in these babies. Anticonvulsant’s requirement was also significantly less in therapeutic hypothermia group.


Author(s):  
Sambedna . ◽  
Amit Kumar ◽  
Rita Chakore

Background: Perinatal asphyxia is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Perinatal asphyxia occurs in association with different maternal and fetal determinants. However, the relation of associated factors with perinatal asphyxia is not well studied. The aim of this study was to determine the association of maternofetal factors and mode of delivery with perinatal asphyxia in a tertiary care centre.Methods: This was a retrospective comparative study conducted in department of OBG in tertiary care health centre. A total 200 newborns were selected for study out of which100 newborns were with asphyxia at birth as study group and 100 non asphyxiated newborns were taken as control group. Maternal factor like age, parity, gestational age and fetal factor like weight at birth and mode of delivery were studied to established association on perinatal asphyxia.Results: Maternal factor like age, parity, gestational age had not significant relationship with perinatal asphyxia. Maximum number of babies delivered in both control and the study group were in the range of 2.6 to 3kg.In this study birth weight did not have significant relationship with perinatal asphyxia. Proportions of LSCS was comparatively higher in the study group though. The delivery mode did not have any statistically significant influence on the newborns affliction with birth asphyxia (p>0.05).Conclusions: Findings of this study highlight the need for the better obstetrical care and awareness of the possible presence of the risk factors of PNA (perinatal asphyxia) among mothers and fetus, so that the incidence and complications of PNA could be prevented or at least appropriately managed. It can reduce the high incidence of morbidity and mortality due to birth asphyxia. 


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 385-96
Author(s):  
Wubet Alebachew Bayih ◽  
Tadesse Gashaw Tezera ◽  
Abebaw Yeshambel Alemu ◽  
Demeke Mesfin Belay ◽  
Habtamu Shimelis Hailemeskel ◽  
...  

Background: More than one third of the neonatal deaths at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Debre Tabor General Hos- pital (DTGH) are attributable to birth asphyxia. Most of these neonates are referred from maternity ward of the hospital. However, there is no recent evidence on the prevalence and specific determinants of birth asphyxia at DTGH. Besides, public health importance of factors like birth spacing weren’t addressed in the prior studies. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on a sample of 240 newborns at delivery ward. The collected data were cleaned, coded and entered into Epi -data version 4.2 and exported to Stata version 14. Binary logistic regression model was considered and statistical significance was declared at P< 0.05 using adjusted odds ratio. Results: The prevalence of asphyxia neonatorum was 6.7 % based on the fifth minute APGAR score. From multi-variable logistic regression analysis, antenatal obstetric complications (AOR = 2.63, 95% CI: 3.75, 14.29), fetal malpresentation (AOR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.21, 15.20), premature rupture of fetal membranes (AOR = 6.56, 95% CI: 3.48, 18.12) and meconium stained amniotic fluid (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.76, 14.59) were significant predictors. Conclusion: The prevalence of fifth minute asphyxia neonatorum was relatively low. Fortunately, its predictors are modifi- able. Thus, we can mitigate the problem even with our limited resources such as enhancing the existing efforts of antenatal and intra-partum care, which could help early detection and management of any obstetric and neonatal health abnormality.” Keywords: Birth asphyxia; asphyxia neonatorum; prevalence; determinants; Ethiopia.


2021 ◽  
pp. 43-48
Author(s):  
M R Shashikumar ◽  
Narasipur Lingaiah Rajendrakumar ◽  
Sanjay P ◽  
Nanjaraj Chakenalli Puttaraj ◽  
Shruti Shruti ◽  
...  

Introduction: HIE is often clinically suspected in the setting of a known perinatal stress event arising from a complicated or difcult delivery. The most sensitive and specic imaging technique for examining infants with suspected hypoxicischemic brain injury is MR imaging. It also gives information about the timing and specic patterns of injury and also suggest diagnoses other than HIE such as metabolic disorders and developmental disorders of the brain. MRI is also a useful tool in the determination of prognosis and also follow-up of HIE. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the various MRI appearances of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in term and preterm neonates and to correlate the MRI appearances with clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: All neonates with history of birth asphyxia, referred for MRI examination to the Department of Radio-Diagnosis, K. R. Hospital attached to Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, during January 2018 to January 2019. All MRI scans were performed on GE optima MR360 1.5 Tesla. Sequences used were T1W axial, T1 FLAIR axial, T2W axial, T2 FLAIR axial, T1W sag, T2W coronal, T2W GRE axial, DWI axial and ADC maps. Results: 30 babies with clinically suspicion of HIE and positive ndings on MR imaging were evaluated in our study. Out of 30 babies, 18 were term and 12 babies were preterm. Periventricular luecomalacia is most common MRI pattern in preterm and central pattern in term neonates. 16 babies had abnormal developmental outcome at 6 months follow up study. 16 babies with diffusion restriction in corpus callosum, 12 had abnormal outcome. 7 out of 10 babies with loss of normal signal in internal capsule had abnormal outcome. Babies with diffusion restriction in basal ganglia had gross developmental delay. Conclusion: MRI is the modality of choice for evaluation of HIE because of excellent gray – white matter resolution, well-depiction of myelination pattern and multi-planar imaging capabilities. There is a strong relation between the MRI appearances of birth asphyxia and the clinical outcome. Therefore MRI has a strong role in prognosticating lesions.


2021 ◽  
pp. 17-19
Author(s):  
Ashwini Kumar Singh ◽  
Gaurav Choudhary ◽  
Akhilesh Patel

INTRODUCTION: Seizure is dened as paroxysmal involuntary disturbance of brain function. It may manifest as impairment or loss of consciousness, abnormal motor activity, behavioural abnormality, sensory disturbance or autonomic dysfunction. Any abnormal, repetitive and stereotypic behaviour in neonates should be evaluated as possible seizure. Neonatal seizures is a common neurological problem with a frequency range from 0.95 to 3.5/1000 live births. AIMS & OBJECTIVES:To assess the importance of biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures and to evaluate clinical presentation & time of onset of seizures in term and preterm neonates. MATERIAL & METHODS: A total of 90 neonates presenting with seizures admitted to NICU of National Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Jaipur from conducted from 1st January 2019 till 30 th June 2020 were enrolled in the study. Detailed antenatal, natal, postnatal history along with detailed examination was done. Baseline characteristics of convulsing neonate including sex, gestational age, birth weight, head circumference & length were recorded at admission. Clinical details of each seizure episode reported by the mother and subsequently observed by the resident doctors on duty were recorded i.e. age at onset of seizures, duration of seizure, number and type of seizure. Relevant investigations including biochemical parameters were done immediately after baby had seizures and before instituting any specic treatment. Etiology of neonatal seizures and associated biochemical abnormalities were diagnosed. RESULTS: In the present study, out of 90 neonates studied, 64 were full term of which 49(76.5%) were AGAand 15(23.5%) were SGA, whereas 26 cases were preterm. The male: female ratio is 1.3:1. Most neonatal seizures occur in rst 3 days of life, i.e. 60 %. Most of them occurred on rst day of life (34%). Birth asphyxia was the cause of neonatal seizures in 82 % neonates who developed seizures on day-1 of life. Birth asphyxia and septicemia are common cause of neonatal seizures in our study, followed by pure metabolic disturbances 20 %. In pure metabolic seizures, hypoglycemia (47.8%) is most common more in preterm babies (55%) followed by hypocalcemia. In cases of non- metabolic seizures, which showed associated biochemical abnormalities, hypoglycemia was most common abnormality 24 of 52 cases (46.15%). 12 cases (52.1%) are associated with birth asphyxia and 11 cases (47.9%) are associated with septicemia. CONCLUSION: Biochemical abnormalities are common in neonatal seizures and often go unrecognized. These abnormalities may signicantly contribute to seizure activity correction of these abnormalities may play a signicant role in seizure control. Hence, a biochemical work up is necessary for all cases of neonatal seizures.


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