Water Status
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Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (10) ◽  
pp. 336
Lidia Aparicio-Durán ◽  
Frederick G. Gmitter ◽  
Juan M. Arjona-López ◽  
Rocío Calero-Velázquez ◽  
Áurea Hervalejo ◽  

Drought and flooding conditions are increasingly common abiotic factors that affect citrus crops in both the Mediterranean Basin and Florida. Furthermore, emerging diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB), are a potential risk for these crops in those producing areas. This study aimed to evaluate the behavior under water-stress treatments of three new citrus rootstocks (UFR-6, B11R5T60, and 2247 x 6070-02-2) with reported tolerance of HLB, comparing them with a common commercial citrus rootstock (Carrizo citrange). Four water conditions were established: Control, Medium Water Stress (MWS), Drought, and Flooding. Chlorophyll index (SPAD), growth in height, relative growth rate, biomass (fresh and dry weight) and plant water status were evaluated. Citru rootstock response were different for each genotype; Carrizo citrange was negatively affected by all water treatments in the chlorophyll index (SPAD) and biomass production. By contrast, UFR-6 showed a positive response in SPAD and growth under MWS and Drought, B11R5T60 displayed similar behavior to Control under all water stresses, and the response of 2247 x 6070-02-2 under MWS treatment was adequate but was not under Drought or Flooding conditions. Our study describes the behavior of these promising new citrus rootstocks against water stress; B11R5T60 exhibiting the best performance. These results can be useful for the citrus industry to address water-stress problems in these crops.

S. Sharma ◽  
M. Baidya ◽  
P. Poudel ◽  
S. R. Panthi ◽  
R. P. Shrestha ◽  

Abstract Although Nepal has made remarkable progress in the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector from past few decades, the status of WASH, in terms of climate change, is poorly documented and thus less known. This review aims to sum up WASH in climate change perspectives by reviewing available secondary data from published and gray literature. Climate change, and its impact on the WASH sector, is undeniable. Though many policies and laws are enforced to address climate change issues, very few policies and laws have incorporated climate change-resilient WASH as a priority. It is of current need to carry out action-based research studies on adaptation and mitigation of impact on the WASH sector, due to climate change, along with future eco-region interventions.

2021 ◽  
Reena Kumari ◽  
Babloo Sharma ◽  
Pratibha Kumari

Abstract A study of runoff and baseflow estimation and its impact ground water status are typically limited in semi-arid region of India. We are focused on runoff and baseflow in the Parasai-Sindh watershed, with the aim of analyzing the influence of watershed management on the response characteristics of discharge. The geological area watershed is 12.46 km2 and its main stream is found to be of 4th order. The runoff and baseflow of watershed were estimated by subtracting barometric pressure from the stage recoded by Baro and Diver install at outlet to get actual stage of runoff passing over it. The results indicate that out of 49.2 mm rainfall event, runoff and baseflow at outlet of watershed were found as 20.98% and 4.19%, respectively. Whereas, runoff and baseflow were recorded 14.12% and 11.18%, respectively against 86.2 mm rainfall. Total runoff and baseflow produced from outlet was recorded as 16 and 7%, respectively.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 2569
Gorana Ćosić-Flajsig ◽  
Barbara Karleuša ◽  
Matjaž Glavan

The intensive use of soil and water resources results in a disbalance between the environmental and economic objectives of the river basin. The water quality management model supports good water status, especially downstream of dams and reservoirs, as in the case of the Sutla/Sotla river basin. This research aims to develop a new, improved integrated water quality management model of rural transboundary basins to achieve environmental objectives and protection of the Natura 2000 sites. The model uses river basin pressure analysis to assess the effects of climate and hydrological extreme impacts, and a programme of basic and supplementary measures. The impact assessment of BASE MODEL, PAST, and FUTURE scenarios was modelled using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) based on land use, climate and hydrological data, climate change, presence or lack of a reservoir, and municipal wastewater and agriculture measures. Eight future climate change scenarios were obtained with optimistic (RCP4.5) and pessimistic (RCP8.5) forecasts for two periods (2020–2050 and 2070–2100), both with and without a reservoir. The model shows that the most significant impacts on the waterbody come from the nutrients and sediment hotspots, also shows the risk of not achieving good water status, and water eutrophication risk. The modelled average annual increase in sediment is from 4 to 25% and in total N from 1 to 8%, while the change in total P is from −5 to 6%. The conducted analysis provides a base for the selection of tailor-made measures from the catalogue of the supplementary measures that will be outlined in future research.

Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 315
Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa ◽  
Nicolás Torres-Huerta ◽  
Miguel Araya-Alman ◽  
Nicolás Verdugo-Vásquez ◽  
Yerko Moreno-Simunovic ◽  

(1) Background: Currently, some ampelographic methods are developing in order to identify grapevine varieties. For this purpose, morpho-colorimetric parameters in leaves have been analyzed by digital imagen analysis, but some environmental conditions may affect their determinations. (2) Methods: A research study was conducted to characterize leaf morpho-colorimetric parameters in five grapevine varieties growing under different plant water status and to discriminate them under these conditions. Leaves were collected in vines, and twelve leaf morpho-colorimetric and fractal dimension variables were assessed. (3) Results: Merlot presented the highest values of perimeter and area to perimeter ratio in leaves and higher leaf area than Chardonnay in both plant water conditions. Most of the leaf morpho-colorimetric variables allowed discriminating the grapevine varieties under the contrasted hydric conditions. Under non-water stress, Carmenère was not related to any measured parameters. Merlot was positively related to most of the leaf morphometric parameters, whereas Chardonnay presented the opposite behavior. RGB color system variables allowed discriminating the grapevine varieties under water stress conditions, and Sauvignon Blanc was not related to any measured parameter. Chardonnay and Pinot Noir were positively related to green color and negatively related to most of the leaf morphometric parameters, whereas Merlot showed the opposite behavior. (4) Conclusions: Leaf morpho-colorimetric and fractal dimension parameters were affected by plant water stress and more variables should be incorporated into the new ampelographic methods in order to characterize leaf morpho-colorimetric parameters of the different grapevine varieties more clearly.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0256342
Evelyn F. Delfin ◽  
Sarah Tepler Drobnitch ◽  
Louise H. Comas

Climate change is projected to increase the incidence of severe drought in many regions, potentially requiring selection for different traits in crop species to maintain productivity under water stress. In this study, we identified a suite of hydraulic traits associated with high productivity under water stress in four genotypes of S. melongena L. We also assessed the potential for recovery of this suite of traits from drought stress after re-watering. We observed that two genotypes, PHL 4841 and PHL 2778, quickly grew into large plants with smaller, thicker leaves and increasingly poor hydraulic status (a water-spender strategy), whereas PHL 2789 and Mara maintained safer water status and larger leaves but sacrificed large gains in biomass (a water-saver strategy). The best performing genotype under water stress, PHL 2778, additionally showed a significant increase in root biomass allocation relative to other genotypes. Biomass traits of all genotypes were negatively impacted by water deficit and remained impaired after a week of recovery; however, physiological traits such as electron transport capacity of photosystem II, and proportional allocation to root biomass and fine root length, and leaf area recovered after one week, indicating a strong capacity for eggplant to rebound from short-term deficits via recovery of physiological activity and allocation to resource acquiring tissues. These traits should be considered in selection and breeding of eggplant hybrids for future agricultural outlooks.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
Iqra Sultan ◽  
Imran Khan ◽  
Muhammad Umer Chattha ◽  
Muhammad Umair Hassan ◽  
Lorenzo Barbanti ◽  

Soil salinity threatens agricultural production worldwide by constraining plant growth and final crop yield. The early stages are most sensitive to salinity, in response to which salicylic acid (SA) has demonstrated beneficial effects in various plant species. Based on this, a maize (Zea mays L.) pot experiment was set up combining three levels of soil salinity (0, 6 and 12 dS m–1), obtained through NaCl addition, with three levels of SA (0, 300 and 600 mM), applied by leaf spraying 20 days after seedling emergence. Fifteen days later, the following traits were assessed: morphology (plant height, leaf number), growth (root and shoot dry weight), leaf water status [relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (EL)], pigments (chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, anthocyanin), antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, vitamin C), oxidative stress markers (H2O2, malondialdehyde), osmo-regulating compounds (free amino acids, soluble proteins and sugars, proline), hormones [indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene], element (Na, K, Ca, Mg and Cl) concentration and content in roots, stem and leaves. Salinity severely affected maize growth (–26% total dry weight), impaired leaf water status (–31% RWC), reduced photosynthetic pigments, enhanced all antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers, two osmo-regulating compounds (soluble sugars and proline) out of four, and all hormones except GA. SA was shown effective in containing most of the stress effects, while supporting plant defences by upgrading antioxidant activities (reduced oxidative stress markers), increasing cell membrane stability (–24% EL) and leaf water status (+20% RWC), and reducing plant stress signalling (–10% ABA and -20% ethylene). Above all, SA contrasted the massive entry of noxious ions (Na+ and Cl–), in favour of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ accumulation. Lastly, salicylic acid was shown beneficial for maize growth and physiology also under non-saline condition, suggesting a potential use in normal field conditions. Highlights - Foliar applied salicylic acid alleviated salinity effects on maize growth at early plant stage. - Salicylic acid improved leaf water status, chlorophyll content, and strengthened anti-oxidant enzymes under salinity. - Salicylic acid reduced oxidative stress markers while enhancing osmo-regulating and hormonal responses to salinity. - Salicylic acid hampered Na and Cl entry and translocation to above ground organs, preserving leaf cell membrane integrity. - Salicylic acid was shown beneficial for maize growth and physiology also under non-saline conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
Xiaoming Sun ◽  
Meizhu Qin ◽  
Qin Yu ◽  
Ziwei Huang ◽  
Yue Xiao ◽  

AbstractFlowers are key organs in many ornamental plants, and various phases of flower development impact their economic value. The final stage of petal development is associated with flower senescence, which is an irreversible process involving programmed cell death, and premature senescence of cut flowers often results in major losses in quality during postharvest handling. Flower opening and senescence are two sequential processes. As flowers open, the stamens are exposed to attract pollinators. Once pollination occurs, flower senescence is initiated. Both the opening and senescence processes are regulated by a range of endogenous phytohormones and environmental factors. Ethylene acts as a central regulator for the ethylene-sensitive flowers. Other phytohormones, including auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid, are also involved in the control of petal expansion and senescence. Water status also directly influences postharvest flower opening, while pollination is a key event in initiating the onset flower senescence. Here, we review the current understanding of flower opening and senescence, and propose future research directions, such as the study of interactions between hormonal and environmental signals, the application of new technology, and interdisciplinary research.

Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (8) ◽  
pp. 249
Gustavo Haddad Souza Vieira ◽  
Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi

The direct examination of plant canopy temperature can assist in optimizing citrus irrigation management in greenhouses. This study aimed to develop a method to measure canopy temperature using thermal imaging in one-year-old citrus plants in a greenhouse to identify plants with water stress and verify its potential to be used as a tool to assess citrus water status. The experiment was conducted for 48 days (27 November 2019 to 13 January 2020). We evaluated the influence of five levels of irrigation on two citrus species (‘Red Ruby’ grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck)). Images were taken using a portable thermal camera and analyzed using open-source software. We determined canopy temperature, leaf photosynthesis and transpiration, and plant biomass. The results indicated a positive relationship between the amount of water applied and the temperature response of plants exposed to different water levels. Grapefruit and sweet orange plants that received less water and were submitted to water restrictions showed higher canopy temperatures than the air (up to 6 °C). The thermal images easily identified water-stressed plants. Our proof-of-concept study allowed quickly obtaining the canopy temperature using readily available equipment and can be used as a tool to assess citrus water status in one-year-old citrus plants in greenhouses and perhaps in commercial operations with mature trees in the field after specific experimentation. This technique, coupled with an automated system, can be used for irrigation scheduling. Thus, setting up a limit temperature is necessary to start the irrigation system and set the irrigation time based on the soil water content. To use this process on a large scale, it is necessary to apply an automation routine to process the thermal images in real time and remove the weeds from the background to determine the canopy temperature.

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