infrared imaging
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Author(s):  
Chanh-Nghiem Nguyen ◽  
Van-Linh Lam ◽  
Phuc-Hau Le ◽  
Huy-Thanh Ho ◽  
Chi-Ngon Nguyen

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely reported for its useful applications in assessing internal fruit qualities. Motivated by apple consumption in the global market, this study aims to evaluate the possibility of applying NIR imaging to detect slight bruises in apple fruits. A simple optical setup was designed, and low-cost system components were used to promote the future development of practical and cost-efficient devices. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, slight bruises were created by a mild impact with a comparably low impact energy of only 0.081 Joules. Experimental results showed that 100% of bruises in Jazz and Gala apples were accurately detected immediately after bruising and within 3 hours of storage. Thus, it is promising to develop customer devices to detect slight bruises for not only apple fruits but also other fruits with soft and thin skin at their early damage stages.


Author(s):  
M. D. H. Nurhadi ◽  
A. Cahyono

Abstract. Population data, despite their significance, are often missing or difficult to access, especially in cities/regencies not belonging to the metropolitan areas or centers of various human activities. This hinders practices that are contingent on their availability. In this study, population estimation was carried out using nighttime light imagery generated by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument. The variable illuminated area was integrated with the population data using linear regression based on an allometric formula so as to produce a regression value, correlation coefficient (r), and coefficient of determination (r2). The average r2 between the illuminated area and the total population was 0.86, indicating a strong correlation between the two variables. Validation using samples of population estimates from three different years yielded an average error of 73% for each city and 7% for the entire study area. The estimation results for the number of residents per city/regency cannot be used as population data due to the high percent error, but for the population on a larger regional scale, in this case, the island of Java, they have a much smaller percent error and can be used as an initial picture of the total population.


Cellulose ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tia Lohtander ◽  
Reima Herrala ◽  
Päivi Laaksonen ◽  
Sami Franssila ◽  
Monika Österberg

AbstractFoams are mainly composed of dispersed gas trapped in a liquid or solid phase making them lightweight and thermally insulating materials. Additionally, they are applicable for large surfaces, which makes them attractive for thermal insulation. State-of-the-art thermally insulating foams are made of synthetic polymeric materials such as polystyrene. This work focuses on generating foam from surfactants and renewable lignocellulosic materials for thermally insulating stealth material. The effect of two surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and polysorbate (T80)), two cellulosic materials (bleached pulp and nanocellulose), and lignin on the foaming and stability of foam was investigated using experimental design and response surface methodology. The volume-optimized foams determined using experimental design were further studied with optical microscopy and infrared imaging. The results of experimental design, bubble structure of foams, and observations of their thermal conductivity showed that bleached pulp foam made using SDS as surfactant produced the highest foam volume, best stability, and good thermal insulation. Lignin did not improve the foaming or thermal insulation properties of the foam, but it was found to improve the structural stability of foam and brought natural brown color to the foam. Both wet and dry lignocellulosic foams provided thermal insulation comparable to dry polystyrene foam. Graphical abstract


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Thomas Tveit ◽  
Emmanuel Skoufias ◽  
Eric Strobl

AbstractWe use Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nightlight data to model the impact of the 2015 Nepal earthquakes. More specifically, the data—showing nightlight emissions—are used to examine the extent to which there is a difference in nightlight intensity between cells damaged in the earthquake versus undamaged cells based on (1) mean comparisons; and (2) fixed effect regression models akin to the double difference method. The analysis is carried out for the entire country as well as smaller regions in and around the Central area and Kathmandu, which were the hardest hit areas. Overall, the regressions find a significant and negative effect from the initial shock, followed by a positive net effect from aid and relief efforts, which is consistent with what one would expect to find. However, the mean analysis results are inconclusive and there is substantial noise in the nightlight measurements due to how the values are produced and persistent cloud cover over Nepal.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Peisong Wu ◽  
Lei Ye ◽  
Lei Tong ◽  
Peng Wang ◽  
Yang Wang ◽  
...  

AbstractWith the increasing demand for multispectral information acquisition, infrared multispectral imaging technology that is inexpensive and can be miniaturized and integrated into other devices has received extensive attention. However, the widespread usage of such photodetectors is still limited by the high cost of epitaxial semiconductors and complex cryogenic cooling systems. Here, we demonstrate a noncooled two-color infrared photodetector that can provide temporal-spatial coexisting spectral blackbody detection at both near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths. This photodetector consists of vertically stacked back-to-back diode structures. The two-color signals can be effectively separated to achieve ultralow crosstalk of ~0.05% by controlling the built-in electric field depending on the intermediate layer, which acts as an electron-collecting layer and hole-blocking barrier. The impressive performance of the two-color photodetector is verified by the specific detectivity (D*) of 6.4 × 109 cm Hz1/2 W−1 at 3.5 μm and room temperature, as well as the promising NIR/MWIR two-color infrared imaging and absolute temperature detection.


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