physiological properties
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
J. Rubert ◽  
S. H. B. Dornelles ◽  
U. R. Nunes ◽  
N. T. Pedrollo ◽  
M. Peripolli ◽  

Abstract The low Brazilian productive index and the high demand have aroused interest in the cultivation of lentils, however the legume is little known and needs further studies. The objective of this study was to analyze and identify the effects of treatments with insecticides and fungicides on the physiological quality of lentil seeds, CA-1512 strain. The experiments were conducted in the seed laboratory in a completely randomized design with seven treatments and four replicates. Seed treatment with Thiophanate-methyl; Fluazinam® (180 ml) + Pyraclostrobin; Thiophanate-methyl; Fipronil® (150 ml) promoted higher levels of germination under accelerated aging, lower number of abnormal seedlings and longer lengths of shoot and radicle for the emergence in paper. Treatment with Carboxin; Thiram® (250 ml) + Imidacloprid® (150 ml) allowed a higher value in the first count of germination in sand, lower number of dead seeds under accelerated aging and longer root length, in the emergence in sand. Shoot length in the emergence in sand increased after seed treatment with Metalaxyl-M; Fludioxonil® (75 ml) + Pyraclostrobin; Thiophanate-methyl; Fipronil® (150 ml). Treatments with fungicides and insecticides considerably improved the physiological properties of the seeds, thus being able to guarantee greater phytosanitary qualities in the field, generating healthier seedlings and with protection against possible pests and diseases, and consequently guaranteeing greater productivity.

Line Sofie Loken ◽  
Helena Backlund Wasling ◽  
Håkan Olausson ◽  
Francis McGlone ◽  
Johan Wessberg

Unmyelinated tactile (CT) afferents are abundant in arm hairy skin and have been suggested to signal features of social affective touch. Here we recorded from unmyelinated low-threshold mechanosensitive afferents in the peroneal and radial nerves, with the most distal receptive fields located on the proximal phalanx of the third finger for the superficial branch of the radial nerve, and near the lateral malleolus for the peroneal nerve. We found that the physiological properties with regard to conduction velocity and mechanical threshold, as well as their tuning to brush velocity, were similar in CT units across the antebrachial (n=27), radial (n=8) and peroneal nerves (n=4). Moreover, we found that while CT afferents are readily found during microneurography of the arm nerves, they appear to be much more sparse in the lower leg compared to C nociceptors. We continued to explore CT afferents with regard to their chemical sensitivity and found that they could not be activated by topical application to their receptive field of either the cooling agent menthol or the pruritogen histamine. In light of previous studies showing the combined effects that temperature and mechanical stimuli have on these neurons, these findings add to the growing body of research suggesting that CT afferents constitute a unique class of sensory afferents with highly specialized mechanisms for transducing gentle touch.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2109395119
Stephanie Cerceo Page ◽  
Srinidhi Rao Sripathy ◽  
Federica Farinelli ◽  
Zengyou Ye ◽  
Yanhong Wang ◽  

Neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been used to model basic cellular aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, but the relationship between the emergent phenotypes and the clinical characteristics of donor individuals has been unclear. We analyzed RNA expression and indices of cellular function in hiPSC-derived neural progenitors and cortical neurons generated from 13 individuals with high polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia (SCZ) and a clinical diagnosis of SCZ, along with 15 neurotypical individuals with low PRS. We identified electrophysiological measures in the patient-derived neurons that implicated altered Na+ channel function, action potential interspike interval, and gamma-aminobutyric acid–ergic neurotransmission. Importantly, electrophysiological measures predicted cardinal clinical and cognitive features found in these SCZ patients. The identification of basic neuronal physiological properties related to core clinical characteristics of illness is a potentially critical step in generating leads for novel therapeutics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Ewoud R. E. Schmidt ◽  
Franck Polleux

One of the most salient features defining modern humans is our remarkable cognitive capacity, which is unrivaled by any other species. Although we still lack a complete understanding of how the human brain gives rise to these unique abilities, the past several decades have witnessed significant progress in uncovering some of the genetic, cellular, and molecular mechanisms shaping the development and function of the human brain. These features include an expansion of brain size and in particular cortical expansion, distinct physiological properties of human neurons, and modified synaptic development. Together they specify the human brain as a large primate brain with a unique underlying neuronal circuit architecture. Here, we review some of the known human-specific features of neuronal connectivity, and we outline how novel insights into the human genome led to the identification of human-specific genetic modifiers that played a role in the evolution of human brain development and function. Novel experimental paradigms are starting to provide a framework for understanding how the emergence of these human-specific genomic innovations shaped the structure and function of neuronal circuits in the human brain.

Monica Dinodia

Abstract: Nitrogen based heterocycles display an impressive repertoire of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-tuberculosis, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-HIV, anti-cancer, anti-helminthic, and other pharmacological activities. Numerous novel nitrogen-based heterocycles have been synthesized, which showed various physiological properties, and their application in medicinal chemistry is ever-growing. The present review will provide an in-depth view of N-heterocyclic compounds that showed biological activities in the last 5 years (2017-2021). This review article will be helpful for the structural design of effective and sustainable N-heterocyclic drugs against diseases with minimal side effects.

Nivedhitha Swaminathan ◽  
Priyanka Priyanka ◽  
Anurag S. Rathore ◽  
Senthilkumar Sivaparakasam ◽  
Senthilmurugan Subbiah

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
Si-Min Chen ◽  
Xiao-Qing Tang

: Homocysteine (Hcy) is an important intermediate in methionine metabolism and generation of one-carbon unit, and its dysfunction is associated with many pathological states. Although Hcy is a non-protein amino acid, many studies have demonstrated protein-related homocysteine metabolism and possible mechanisms underlying homocysteinylation. Homocysteinylated proteins lose their original biological function and have a negative effect on the various disease phenotypes. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as an important gaseous signaling molecule with mounting physiological properties. H2S modifies small molecules and proteins via sulfhydration, which is supposed to be essential in the regulation of biological functions and signal transduction in human health and disorders. This review briefly introduces Hcy and H2S, further discusses pathophysiological consequences of homocysteine modification and sulfhydryl modification, and ultimately makes a prediction that H2S might exert a protective effect on the toxicity of homocysteinylation of target protein via sulfhydration. The highlighted information here yields new insights for the role of protein modification by Hcy and H2S in diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 78 (4) ◽  
pp. 110-116
Світлана Дроговоз ◽  
Галина Бєлік ◽  
Катерина Калько ◽  
Станіслав Шевченко ◽  
Людмила Деримедвідь ◽  

Цукровий діабет (ЦД) є глобальною актуальною соціальною проблемою XXI століття. Метою даного огляду літератури: є аналіз фізіологічних властивостей та фармакотерапевтичних можливостей карбоксітерапії, а також досвіду застосування даного методу для лікування ЦД. Матеріали і методи дослідження. Наукові публікації в зарубіжних та вітчизняних журналах переважно за останні 5 років, інтернет ресурси по карбоксітерапії як методу лікування ЦД. Результати досліджувати і їх обговорення. В результаті аналізу літератури були зіставленні механізми реалізації фармакологічних ефектів карбоксітерапії з окремими ланками патогенезу ЦД. Проаналізовані механізми і ефекти карбоксітерапії як ефективного альтернативного методу лікування ЦД та його ускладнень. Представлені дані свідчать про раціональність застосування карбоксітерапії як альтернативного методу лікування ЦД та його ускладнень. Висновки. З огляду на сучасні можливості фармакотерапії ЦД та більш ніж п’ятдесятирічний досвід застосування карбоксітерапії в практичній медицині дозволяє рекомендувати цей інноваційний метод як альтернативну off-label терапію ЦД. Ключові слова: цукровий діабет, лікування, карбоксітерапія.     EXPERIENCE AND PROSPECTS OF CARBOXYTHERAPY IN DIABETES MELLITUS Drogovoz S. M.1, Belik G. V.1, Kalko К. О.1, Bondariev Ye. V.1, Derymedvid L. V.1, Orlenko І. V.1, Shtroblya А. L.2 National University of Pharmacy, Kharkiv, Ukraine Uzhgorod National University, Uzhgorod, Ukraine   Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global topical social problem of the XXI century. The aim of this literature review is to analyze the physiological properties and pharmacotherapeutic possibilities of carboxytherapy, as well as the experience of this method for the treatment of diabetes. Materials and methods. Scientific publications in foreign and domestic journals mainly for the last 5 years, online resources on carboxytherapy as a method of DM treating. Results and discussions. As a result of the literature analysis, the mechanisms of implementation of the pharmacological effects with separate links of the pathogenesis of diabetes were compared. The mechanisms and effects of carboxytherapy as an effective alternative method for treating diabetes mellitus and its complications have been analyzed. The presented data indicate the rational use of carboxytherapy as an alternative method for treating diabetes and its complications. Conclusions. Given the current possibilities of pharmacotherapy of diabetes and more than fifty years of experience in the use of carboxytherapy in practical medicine allows us to recommend this innovative method as an alternative to off-label therapy of diabetes. Key words: diabetes mellitus, treatment, carboxytherapy.      

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