Seed Treatment
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2021 ◽  
Vol 34 (4) ◽  
pp. 813-823
Author(s):  
ANA PAULA SILVA COUTO ◽  
ALANA EMANOELE PEREIRA ◽  
JULIA ABATI ◽  
MAIRA LAÍZA CAMARGO FONTANELA ◽  
CLAUDIA REGINA DIAS-ARIEIRA ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT Seed treatment with fungi of the genus Trichoderma spp. provides several benefits, including plant growth promotion, stress tolerance, and pathogenic fungi control. Moreover, to avoid inadequate doses and unnecessary costs, these treatments must be applied in proper amounts. However, no study has evaluated their applicability in wheat seeds. This study aimed to determine the most efficient dose of Trichoderma-based products applied as a seed treatment for improving the physiological and sanitary quality of the wheat cultivars TBIO ‘Toruk’ and TBIO ‘Sossego’, besides comparing the performance of biological and chemical agents. Two biological treatments (Trichoderma asperellum SF 04 and Trichoderma harzianum IBLF006) were applied at 0 (control), 5 × 10 11 , 1 × 10 12 , 1.5 × 10 12 , and 2 × 10 12 colony-forming units (CFU) 100 kg–1 seed. Two chemical treatments (carboxin + thiram and pyraclostrobin + thiophanate-methyl + fipronil) were applied at the manufacturers’ recommended doses. Seed germination, shoot and root lengths, seedling dry matter, and sanitary quality were analyzed under laboratory conditions, while seedling emergence, shoot length, and shoot dry matter were analyzed under greenhouse conditions. The optimal dose for wheat seed treatment with T. asperellum SF 04 and T. harzianum IBLF006 was 2 × 10 12 CFU 100 kg–1 seed. When comparing biological and chemical products, our findings indicate that both options are adequate for managing wheat diseases and providing seedling growth via seed treatment.


HortScience ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Author(s):  
Giovanni Antoniaci Caputo ◽  
Sandra Branham ◽  
Matthew Cutulle

Poor competitive ability and limited herbicide options make weed management of Brassica crops difficult. Growers often adopt the use of transplants, which is less efficient in terms of time, material, and labor when compared with direct seeding, resulting in higher prices per unit. Seed treatment with protective compounds could decrease crop injury from preemergent (PRE) herbicides making it profitable to direct-seed Brassica plants for production. Research was conducted to evaluate the ability of three candidate safeners [24-epibrassinolide, melatonin, and ascorbic acid (AsA)] to reduce injury caused by four herbicides (S-metolachlor, pyroxasulfone, halosulfuron, and mesotrione) applied PRE on the collard green cultivar Top Bunch and turnip cultivar Purple Top White Globe. Two independent greenhouse trials were conducted at the Clemson University Coastal Research and Education Center in Charleston, SC. Visual injury of the treated plants was evaluated weekly and dry mass was collected 21 days after treatment. Seed treatment did not reduce injury efficiently caused by pyroxasulfone, halosulfuron, and mesotrione; all doses were lethal for both crops. However, collard seeds treated using melatonin and AsA had 66% and 54% less injury caused by S-metolachlor at 514 g⋅ha–1 a.i., respectively. On turnips, melatonin was the only treatment that reduced the S-metolachlor damage on seedlings, with 43% less injury than untreated seedlings. Plant injury and plant weight correlated significantly for both Brassica crops. The reduction in injury caused by S-metolachlor when seeds were treated with melatonin and AsA validated those compounds’ protective ability. Seed treatment with melatonin could be combined with PRE applications of S-metolachlor to overcome the low weed competitive ability of these species early in the season.


Author(s):  
Martha Amulya ◽  
Abhinav Dayal ◽  
Prashant Kumar Rai

The field experiment entitled “Pre sowing seed treatment of bio inoculants and micronutrients on growth, yield and yield attributing traits of lentil (Lens culinaris L.)” var. Shekhar Masoor-2 was conducted during rabi at central reseach field of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India during 2020 - 2021. The experiment consisted of 13 treatments which was laid in Randomized Block Design (RBD). Results revealed that seeds treated with T12 (Rhizobium + PSB + KMB + ZnSO4 + Ammonium molybdate) recorded maximum values in growth parameters viz., field emergence (%) 88.72%, plant height at 30, 60, 90 DAS with 6.97, 23.33, 45.2 cm Days to 50% flowering (72.67days), number of branches 5.07 branches per plant, number of pods per plant with 64.07 pods per plant, number of seeds per pod 1.85 seeds per pod. Similar results are observed in yield paramters where highest seed yield per plant was observed in T12 (Rhizobium + PSB + KMB + ZnSO4 + Ammonium molybdate) with 3.79 g and seed yield per plot 107.4 g.


Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiujun Tang ◽  
Shuning Chen ◽  
Xiaojing Yan ◽  
Zhenying Wang ◽  
Huizhu Yuan ◽  
...  

Microbial communities are essential for soil health, but fungicide application may have significant effects on their structure. It is difficult to predict whether non-target pathogens of applied fungicides in the soil will cause crop damage. Tebuconazole is a triazole fungicide that can be used as a seed treatment and thereby introduced to the soil. However, seed-applied tebuconazole has a potential risk of causing poor emergence of corn (Zea mays) seedlings. Using soil with a history of poor corn seedling emergence, we demonstrate through TA-cloning and isolation that the poor emergence of corn seedlings from tebuconazole-coated corn seeds was primarily due to infection by surviving soil pathogens, specifically Pythium species that are not targeted by tebuconazole, rather than the phytotoxic effects of tebuconazole. Bioassay tests on tebuconazole amended media showed that tebuconazole can suppress soil fungi while allowing Pythium to grow. Pythium species primarily contributing to the corn seed rot were more pathogenic at cooler temperatures. Furthermore, the non-target biocontrol agent of Trichoderma spp. was strongly inhibited by tebuconazole. Taken together, the non-target effects of tebuconazole are likely not significant under favorable plant growing conditions, but are considerable due to low-temperature stress.


2021 ◽  
Vol 905 (1) ◽  
pp. 012004
Author(s):  
N Arfarita

Abstract This study investigated the growth after application of VP3 biofertilizer and its essential ingredients (vermiwash and vermicompost) and the effect of their pathogenicity on the germination of soybeans, green beans, long beans, kale, mustard greens, and green spinach. Research design was observed on plant height, root length, fresh weight, and signs of pathogenicity. The VP3 biofertilizer inoculation gave better results than other treatments on the high germination and fresh weight. However, in water spinach plants, the application of VP3 biofertilizer had a significant effect only on the height parameters of the seeds. Provision of VP3 biofertilizer and each of its carriers did not show any signs of pathogenicity such as necrosis, wilting, root rot, or stem rot. This finding indicates that VP3 biofertilizer is potential as a seed treatment and is also known to contain soil-borne disease controlling agent bacteria.


2021 ◽  
Vol 901 (1) ◽  
pp. 012058
Author(s):  
V I Cherniavskih ◽  
I V Pravdin ◽  
E V Dumacheva ◽  
Tsugkiev ◽  
V.B. Tsugkieva

Abstract In the system of soil-saving technologies, comparative tests of the effectiveness of the use of various biological products based on consortia of microorganisms, fungal cultures in the field were conducted, and their effectiveness was evaluated. We used the preparations “Nurse Mycorrhiza” (Russia), MycoCrop ® (Germany), a new drug of the “Biogor” series developed by the Scientific and Technical Center for Biological Technologies in Agriculture (NTC“BIO”) (Russia). The effectiveness of seed treatment with biological preparations is shown. Plants of spring wheat of the Darya variety, the seeds of which were treated with the preparation “Biogor”, had friendly aligned shoots, formed a better-developed root system, which later resulted in a significant increase in yield. The results of the dispersion analysis showed that the difference between the processing options is significant, and the processing by the “Biogor” consortium has a positive effect on the formation of grains in the ear, their mass, the mass of 1000 seeds, as well as on the yield of spring wheat in general. The use of a new preparation of the “Biogor” series, developed in LLC “STC “BIO” and containing a consortium of beneficial microorganisms, is promising for spring wheat: the weight of 1000 seeds increases by 13.5 %, the yield significantly increases by 12.5 %.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2064 (1) ◽  
pp. 012101
Author(s):  
N N Loy ◽  
N I Sanzharova ◽  
S N Gulina ◽  
O V Suslova ◽  
T V Chizh ◽  
...  

Abstract The effect of electron irradiation of barley seeds of the Vladimir variety on the development of plants, disease incidence and productivity in controlled greenhouse conditions has been studied. It was found that the effectiveness of the effect of seed treatment with low-energy electronic radiation in the dose range of 30–150 kGy on the morphometric parameters of barley largely depends on the accelerating voltage – 130 kV (mode 1) and 160 kV (mode 2). It was noted that irradiation suppressed the formation of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids in barley leaves at all doses and irradiation regimes and, at the tendency level, reduced the infestation of Bipolaris sorokiniana plants in the tillering and heading phases. It was shown that irradiation of seeds caused an increase in the total tillering of plants (mode 2), but at the same time reduced the productive tillering. Electron irradiation caused an increase in the mass of 1000 grains and did not affect the yield of grain and straw.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhi Zhang ◽  
Juan Fan ◽  
Mucai Feng ◽  
Hongbo Qiu ◽  
Anlong Hu

Head smut, caused by Sporisorium reilianum [(Kuhn) Langdon and Fullerton], is a major disease of sorghum. Seed treatment is considered to be the most effective way to control the disease; however, the pathogen can infect at the seedling stage and the infected plant will not display symptoms until the reproductive stage is reached. The evaluation of the efficacy of seed treatments is time consuming and is dependent upon visible symptoms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have the ability to identify pathogens and diagnose their presence at an early stage of infection. In this study, the S. reilianum-specific primer SR3 was used for PCR detection pathogen. We optimized temperature, humidity, and spore quantity test conditions and were able to achieve >88% infection incidence in sorghum seedlings. Sorghum seeds were soaked in various concentrations of tebuconazole and planted for 7 days in soil containing 0.2% teliospores. The efficacy of tebuconazole against S. reilianum was evaluated by PCR and recorded as disease incidence. Results indicated that the reduction in disease incidence after exposure to 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, and 0.75 μg/mL tebuconazole was 6.24, 37.48, 67.74, 81.24, and 93.74%, respectively. Significant differences between the concentrations of tebuconazole were observed. The PCR assay represents a valuable tool for evaluating the efficacy of fungicide seed treatments for the control of S. reilianum in sorghum under laboratory conditions.


2021 ◽  
pp. 86-90
Author(s):  
Т. M. Morozova

There have been presented the study results on the effect of pre-sowing seed ozonation of narrowleaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and common oat on their germination energy, germination capacity, productivity and product quality. The study was carried out in the period from 2018 to 2020 in laboratory and field conditions of the Kostroma RIA, the branch of the FSBSI “Russian Potato Research Center named after A.G. Lorkh”. The purpose of the current study was to find out the efficiency of pre-sowing seed treatment with an ozone-air flow and treatment with a biological product for their germination energy, germination capacity, productivity and product quality. The objects of the study were the common oats variety ‘Yakov’ and the narrowleaf lupin variety ‘Belozerny 110’. The seeds of the lupin-oat mixture were ozonized at a dose of 5.0 mg/m3 for 15 minutes and 30 minutes using an RIOS-10(20)-0.5 ozonizer. For comparison, the seeds were treated with the biological product ‘Fitosporin-M’. Ultimately, there were identified the best parameters of the pre-sowing seed treatment of the lupin-oat mixture. On average, over the years of study, pre-sowing seed ozonation greatly improves the germination energy of agricultural crops on 4.8–8.3%, laboratory germination was improved on 3.0–5.0%. The largest green mass productivity of lupin-oat mixture during pre-sowing seed treatment for three years was 26.1 t/ha in the variant with an ozone dose of 5.0 mg/m3 for 15 minutes, which was more than control on 29.2%. In the variant with ozonation time increase to 30 minutes, the average productivity was 23.2 t/ha, which was 14.8% more than in the control. Pre-sowing seed ozonation contributed to dry matter increase on 14.2–19.0%; crude protein yield increased on 32.8–53.2%; crude protein percentage in grain increased on 14.1–16.8%; metabolizable energy increased on 3.7–5,1%; fodder units increased on 4.3–6.5% compared to control. When treating seeds with a biological product ‘Fitosporin-M’, the average productivity was 22.8 t/ha, which was on 12.9% more than control, an increase in dry matter was on 16.6%, an increase in crude protein yield was on 19.6%, an increase in crude protein percentage in grain was on 0.8%, an increase in metabolizable energy was on 1.9%, an increase in fodder units was on 1.0%.


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