social science
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2022 ◽  
Paul Bloom ◽  
Laurie Paul

Some decision-making processes are uncomfortable. Many of us do not like to make significant decisions, such as whether to have a child, solely based on social science research. We do not like to choose randomly, even in cases where flipping a coin is plainly the wisest choice. We are often reluctant to defer to another person, even if we believe that the other person is wiser, and have similar reservations about appealing to powerful algorithms. And, while we are comfortable with considering and weighing different options, there is something strange about deciding solely on a purely algorithmic process, even one that takes place in our own heads.What is the source of our discomfort? We do not present a decisive theory here—and, indeed, the authors have clashing views over some of these issues—but we lay out the arguments for two (consistent) explanations. The first is that such impersonal decision-making processes are felt to be a threat to our autonomy. In all of the examples above, it is not you who is making the decision, it is someone or something else. This is to be contrasted with personal decision-making, where, to put it colloquially, you “own” your decision, though of course you may be informed by social science data, recommendations of others, and so on. A second possibility is that such impersonal decision-making processes are not seen as authentic, where authentic decision making is one in which you intentionally and knowledgably choose an option in a way that is “true to yourself.” Such decision making can be particularly important in contexts where one is making a life-changing decision of great import, such as the choice to emigrate, start a family, or embark on a major career change.

Константин Викторович Воденко ◽  
Елена Владимировна Сусименко ◽  
Евгений Евгеньевич Некрасов

Представленная статья реализует попытку авторов осмыслить на основе деятельностно-активистского подхода конструирование будущего в образовательных стратегиях российской молодежи. На базе концептуального социально-эмпирического анализа авторы статьи приходят к выводу о том, что большинство молодых россиян разделяют позиции адаптивности, актуализма в качестве выбора образовательной стратегии. Это определяется факторами объективного и субъективного характера, где объективизация социальных условий выступает влияющей на субъективный выбор молодежи. Отмечая значимость социальной и территориальной дифференциации, авторы статьи обосновывают положение о конструировании будущего, о формировании образов жизни и набора жизненных целей российской молодежи как возможности ухода от ограниченности прагматического поворота в образовании. В качестве заключительного суждения определяется взаимосвязь между ориентацией на квалифицированную деятельность и конфигурацию ответов на изменения в образовательной системе. Делается вывод о том, что в отечественной социально-гуманитарной науке назрела необходимость осмысления образовательных стратегий российской молодежи как способности российской молодежи конструировать образ будущего с учетом нарастания влияния социальных инноваций. The presented paper implements the authors' attempt to understand, on the basis of an activist approach, the design of the future in the educational strategies of Russian youth. Based on a conceptual socio-empirical analysis, the authors of the publication conclude that most young Russians share the positions of adaptability, actualism as a choice of educational strategy. This is determined by factors of an objective and subjective nature, where the objectification of social conditions acts as an influence on the subjective choice of youth. Noting the importance of social and territorial differentiation, the authors of the paper substantiate the provision on the design of the future, on the formation of lifestyles and a set of life goals of Russian youth as an opportunity to escape the limited pragmatic turn in education. As a final judgment, the relationship between the orientation to skilled activities and the configuration of responses to changes in the educational system is determined. It is concluded that in domestic social science and humanities there is a need to understand the educational strategies of Russian youth as the ability of Russian youth to design the image of the future, taking into account the growing influence of social innovations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2116638118
Robert Jervis

Most high-profile disasters are followed by demands for an investigation into what went wrong. Even before they start, calls for finding the missed warning signs and an explanation for why people did not “connect the dots” will be common. Unfortunately, however, the same combination of political pressures and the failure to adopt good social science methods that contributed to the initial failure usually lead to postmortems that are badly flawed. The high stakes mean that powerful actors will have strong incentives to see that certain conclusions are—and are not—drawn. Most postmortems also are marred by strong psychological biases, especially the assumption that incorrect inferences must have been the product of wrong ways of thinking, premature cognitive closure, the naive use of hindsight, and the neglect of the comparative method. Given this experience, I predict that the forthcoming inquiries into the January 6, 2021, storming of the US Capitol and the abrupt end to the Afghan government will stumble in many ways.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Peter Skaerbaek

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications that Power’s book had to the author’s research in public sector auditing. Design/methodology/approach In this paper, the author reflects and debates the inspiration that Michael Power’s book The Audit Society had on the author’s own research. Findings The author finds that this book had a significant influence on how he succeeded theorizing his studies on auditing, and how he could contribute to the audit literature. It is stunning how the book succeeded in synthesizing audit research, encouraging scholars to understand auditing as a social practice, i.e. how auditing can be theorized using various social science theories and how the book also appealed to broader social science. Research limitations/implications This paper is a reflection that covers around a 20-year period with potential mis-representations of how exactly sequences of actions and thoughts were. Practical implications This paper helps to clarify how it is that audit operates and influences everyday life of persons involved with auditing. Social implications This paper casts doubts as to what actions are carried out in the name of audit and that audit is not just a value free activity but involved with political agendas. Originality/value The originality of this paper is that it fleshes out how a seminal book can have significant implications on how research is carried out.

2022 ◽  
Kun Chen ◽  
Xian-tong Ren ◽  
Guo-liang Yang ◽  
Hai-bo Qin

2022 ◽  
pp. 52-62
John F. Wilson ◽  
Ian G. Jones ◽  
Steven Toms ◽  
Anna Tilba ◽  
Emily Buchnea ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 240-250
Nurhibbah Binti Majid ◽  
Rosadah Binti Abdul Majid

Pembelajaran abad ke-21 (PAK 21) merujuk kepada inisiatif Kementerian Pendidikan untuk meningkatkan kualiti sistem pendidikan melalui keberhasilan murid melalui lima elemen standard pengajaran PAK 21. Objektif kajian dijalankan untuk mengkaji tahap kesediaan guru khas masalah pembelajaran dari segi pengetahuan, kemahiran dan hubungan antara pengetahuan dan kemahiran dalam melaksanakan pembelajaran abad ke-21 (PAK 21) semasa proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran dijalankan. Data diperolehi melalui rekabentuk kaedah tinjauan atas talian yang melibatkan 60 orang guru pendidikan khas masalah pembelajaran sekitar daerah Johor Bahru. Instrumen kajian menggunakan soal selidik skala Likert 4 mata dan hasil kajian dianalisa dengan menggunakan program Statisttical Packages for Social Science (SPSS). Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa tahap pelaksanaan PAK 21 di kalangan guru-guru khas masalah pembelajaran dari segi pengetahuan dan kemahiran adalah di tahap sederhana (min = 2.92). Namun demikian, terdapat hubungan yang kuat antara pengetahuan dan kemahiran dalam melaksanakan PAK 21. Hasil kajian memberi implikasi terhadap keperluan dan latihan guru pada masa akan datang dalam menyediakan guru-guru pendidikan khas masalah pembelajaran yang berkemahiran dalam PAK 21.

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