Comparative Method
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2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2116638118
Robert Jervis

Most high-profile disasters are followed by demands for an investigation into what went wrong. Even before they start, calls for finding the missed warning signs and an explanation for why people did not “connect the dots” will be common. Unfortunately, however, the same combination of political pressures and the failure to adopt good social science methods that contributed to the initial failure usually lead to postmortems that are badly flawed. The high stakes mean that powerful actors will have strong incentives to see that certain conclusions are—and are not—drawn. Most postmortems also are marred by strong psychological biases, especially the assumption that incorrect inferences must have been the product of wrong ways of thinking, premature cognitive closure, the naive use of hindsight, and the neglect of the comparative method. Given this experience, I predict that the forthcoming inquiries into the January 6, 2021, storming of the US Capitol and the abrupt end to the Afghan government will stumble in many ways.

2022 ◽  
pp. 135581962110438
Mary Dixon-Woods ◽  
Emma L Aveling ◽  
Anne Campbell ◽  
Akbar Ansari ◽  
Carolyn Tarrant ◽  

Objectives Those who work in health care organisations are a potentially valuable source of information about safety concerns, yet failures of voice are persistent. We propose the concept of ‘voiceable concern’ and offer an empirical exploration. Methods We conducted a qualitative study involving 165 semi-structured interviews with a range of staff (clinical, non-clinical and at different hierarchical levels) in three hospitals in two countries. Analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Results Our analysis shows that identifying what counts as a concern, and what counts as a occasion for voice by a given individual, is not a straightforward matter of applying objective criteria. It instead often involves discretionary judgement, exercised in highly specific organisational and cultural contexts. We identified four influences that shape whether incidents, events and patterns were classified as voiceable concerns: certainty that something is wrong and is an occasion for voice; system versus conduct concerns, forgivability and normalisation. Determining what counted as a voiceable concern is not a simple function of the features of the concern; also important is whether the person who noticed the concern felt it was voiceable by them. Conclusions Understanding how those who work in health care organisations come to recognise what counts as a voiceable concern is critical to understanding decisions and actions about speaking out. The concept of a voiceable concern may help to explain aspects of voice behaviour in organisations as well as informing interventions to improve voice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 217-232
Barbara Hryszko

The aim of this article is to present the circumstances of Noël Coypel’s appointment as rector of the French Academy in Rome and to trace the route of his didactic journey from Paris to Rome with the Prix de Rome scholars entrusted to him. The paper is an attempt to answer the following questions: why a more difficult route through the Alps was chosen (and not, for example, a river and sea route), in what way was the journey educational, and what role did the documents given to Coypel play in securing the expedition. The article is based on an analysis of administrative records during the reign of Louis XIV, lists of superintendents and directors of the French Academy in Rome, accounts of royal buildings, and minutes of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris. The paper uses the analytical method, the comparative method, the synthetic method, source criticism, argumentum ex silentio inference, and the geographical method when discussing the itinerary. Although the trip was purposeful and related to Coypel’s new position, he designed it in such a way as to not so much get to the destination quickly, but to show his students as much as possible. Coypel introduced the royal scholars to masterpieces of painting and sculpture at centers along a route through Dijon, Lyon, Chambéry, the Mont Cenis Pass, Turin, Milan, Bologna and Florence. The crossing of the Alps, though dangerous, was most often chosen because of the artistic reputation of the cities there. The trip was educational at the expense of comfort or safety. Coypel, as a guide and teacher (paidagōgós – παιδαγωγός) led his charges by overseeing their learning during and through the journey. Wandering to the Eternal City was part of a painter’s education (paideía – παιδεία) in the seventeenth century and was part of Coypel’s didactic work allowing young people to be inspired by direct exposure to masterpieces. The journey had an eminently didactic and artistic character, but also an initiatory one, as it gradually initiated and prepared the students for the experience of Rome, the center of artistic life at that time.

Bayrta B. Mandzhieva ◽  

Introduction. In the system of artistic and visual means, the epithet occupies one of the important places. To create a heroic image, the narrator uses epithets that characterize the status of the hero, age and heroic merits of the heroes. Goal and tasks. The purpose of the article is to study artistic-identifying combinations - epithets in the recordings of the song “Shara Gyurgyu” at different times, to identify their preservation and change over time. To achieve the goal, the following tasks were solved: epithets were identified in three different-temporal texts of the song “Shara Gyurgyu” (1862, 1970, 1971), a comparative analysis of artistic-identifying combinations in the texts of different dzhangarchi was carried out. Method. To study the poetical and stylistic texture, we applied the comparative method. The material of the research was records of different times: 1) “The Song about how the famous Ulan Shovshur of the mangas khan of the Ferocious Shara Gyurgyu reproached the Maloderbet cycle of 1862; 2) an audio recording of “Songs about the duel of a lion [-the hero] Ulan Khongor the Beautiful with the Ferocious Shara Gyurgyu” by Jangarchi Telty Lidzhiev 1970; 3) audio recording of “Song of Shara Gyurgyu” by jangarchi Mikhail Mandzhiev 1971. Results. The study of epithets in recordings of the song “Shara Gyurgyu” at different times showed that over more than a century that has passed since the first recording, the epic text in its artistic embodiment has undergone changes. The song “Shara Gyurgyu” of the Maloderbet cycle of 1862 is distinguished by an abundance of epithets, while in the recordings of the late tradition of the epic, there is a transformation of the artistic level of the text. Storytellers Teltya Lidzhiev and Mikhail Mandzhiev adhere to the main plot structure in the process of performance, without sharpening attention to poetic tropes. Observations of the texts of different storytellers at different times show that Dzhangarchi, having a wider epic knowledge, performs the song in accordance with the criteria of fidelity of reproduction, following the tradition of the epic school to which he belonged. A comparative analysis of recordings of the song “Shara Gyurgyu” at different times allowed us to identify constant units at the level of textual embodiment, which accumulate the poetical and stylistic basis of the epic narrative and mark the key links of the epic narration of the Kalmyk heroic epic “Dzhangar”.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 385
Utsmanul Hakim Efendi ◽  
Shofiatun Nikmah

<p>Kajian hadis Gender telah mendapat perhatian dari berbagai ilmuwan Muslim di dunia. Di Indonesia, KH. Husein Muhammad dan Abdul Mustaqim merupakan Tokoh yang aktif menarasikan kesetaraan gender dengan merelevansikannya dengan Teks-teks Agama. Keduanya memiliki Latar belakang Pendidikan yang berbeda, sehingga mendorong peneliti untuk melakukan kajian komparasi terhadap Pemikiran keduanya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui metode pemahaman hadis perspektif gender dari keduanya. Melalui analisa komparasi, penelitian ini hendak menunjukkan perbedaan dan persamaan metode keduanya dalam memahami hadis dengan perspektif gender. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode komparasi dengan analisis Gender. Metode ini digunakan untuk melihat sejauhmana hadis dapat dipahami dan diaplikasikan dengan menggunakan analisis gender, sekaligus untuk memahami secara komprehensif perbedaan dan persamaan dari kedua tokoh. Pada penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa keduanya menggunakan prinsip-prinsip gender secara mendasar seperti kesetaran, kemanusiaan dan keadilan dalam memahami hadis. Keduanya juga menjadikan Maqashid al-Shariah sebagai basis penafsiran, dimana makna hadis harus sejalan dengan Prinsip yang terdapat dalam Maqashid al-Syariah. Namun KH. Husein Muhammad dan Abdul Mustaqim memiliki latarbelakang pendidikan akademik yang berbeda, dalam penelitian ini diketahui bahwa metode yang dipaparkan Abdul Mustaqim lebih sistematis dan metodis serta memudahkan pembaca untuk memahami langkah-langkah metodiknya dalam memahami hadis perspektif Gender.</p><p>[<strong>Understanding Hadith on Gender Perspective: A Comparative Study of KH. Husein Muhammad and Abdul Mustaqim</strong>.<strong> </strong>The study of Gender-hadith has received attention from various Muslim scientists in the world. In Indonesia, KH. Husein Muhammad and Abdul Mustaqim are figures who actively narrate gender equality by relevating it with religious texts. Both of them have different educational backgrounds, thus encouraging researchers to do a comparative study of their thought. This study aimed to determine the method of understanding the hadith from the gender perspective of both. This research aims to show the differences and similarities of two methods in understanding the hadith from a gender perspective through a comparative analysis. The method used is a comparative method with gender analysis. This method is used to see the extent to which the hadith can be understood and applied by using gender analysis, as well as to comprehensively understand the differences and similarities of the two figures. In this research, it can be concluded that both of them use basic gender principles such as equality, humanity and justice in understanding hadith. Both of them also make maqashid al-syariah as the basis for interpretation, where the meaning of hadith must be in line with the principles contained in maqasid al-shariah. However, KH. Husein Muhammad and Abdul Mustaqim have different academic educational backgrounds, in this research, it is known that the method described by Abdul Mustaqim is more systematic and methodical and makes it easier for the reader to understand his methodical steps in understanding the hadith from a gender perspective.]</p>

Bejtullah Ismail Gashi Bejtullah Ismail Gashi

This research aims to clarify the provisions in which the Kosovan family law violated Islamic Shari’a، the researcher followed the inductive method، the analytical method and the comparative method for its suitability to the study، the researcher reached a number of results، most notably that the Kosovan family law violated the Islamic Shari، a in the folloving issues: prohibiting polygamy, alloving the Muslim woman to marry a non- Muslim, the Kosovan law also allowed the court to allow to marry Non –Marriageable female relatives by affinity for acceptable and clear reasons, the researcher also recommended that the Kosovar legislator shall adopt the provisions of Islamic Shari,a that contribute to protecting the rights of family members from Islamic Sharia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 299
Ahmad Amir Nabil ◽  
Zunaidah Mohd. Marzuki

<p>Makalah ini menyorot pemikiran hadis Muhammad Asad (1990-1992) yang dinilai progresif serta kontribusinya dalam pemahaman hadis kontemporer. Ia membincangkan pemahaman inti tentang hadis yang dirumuskan dalam karya-karyanya seperti <em>Sahih al-Bukhari The Early Years of Islam</em>; <em>Islam at The Crossroads</em> (bab “Hadis and Sunnah” dan “The Spirit of the Sunnah”); <em>This Law of Ours and Other Essays; The Road to Mecca </em>dan <em>The Message of the Qur’an</em>. Pengaruh hadis ini turut ditinjau dari artikelnya dalam jurnal <em>Arafat</em> dan makalahnya yang lain terkait tema-tema hadis dan sunnah, serta pemahaman serta tantangannya di abad modern, seperti tulisannya “Social and Cultural Realities of the Sunnah”. Bentuk kajian ini adalah bersifat deskriptif, analitis, historis dan komparatif. Kajian ini mencoba mengembangkan ide dan pemahaman hadis yang dirumuskan Asad dari perspektifnya yang modern dan membandingkannya dengan pemikiran-pemikiran sejarah yang krusial terkait prinsip hadis yang dibawakan oleh pemikir Islam yang lain. Hasil kajian ini menyimpulkan bahwa Muhammad Asad telah memberikan sumbangan yang penting dalam pemikiran hadis di abad modern dengan hasil penulisannya yang prolifik dan substantif, termasuk terjemahan dan syarahannya yang ekstensif terhadap <em>Sahih al-Bukhari</em> yang memuat komentar-komentar baru dan analisis sejarahnya yang mendalam terhadap kitab ini. Ia merumuskan pertentangan-pertentangan hukum dan istinbat-istinbat fuqaha’ dan <em>muhaddith</em> dalam tradisi syarah hadis yang kritis. Ia turut merespon pertikaian-pertikaian dasar yang dibangkitkan oleh golongan orientalis dan intelektual yang skeptis terhadap riwayat-riwayat sejarah dalam tradisi hadis.</p><p>[<strong><span lang="IN">Muhammad Asad's Progressive Thoughts on Hadith.</span></strong><span>The</span><span lang="IN"> paper analyses the ideas of hadith (prophetic tradition) as espoused by Muhammad Asad (1990-1992) and its significance in contemporary hadith thought. It studies the essential ideas he developed in his discussion of hadith as reflected in his works such as <em>Sahih al-Bukhari The Early Years of Islam</em>; <em>Islam at The Crossroads</em> (chapter “Hadith and Sunnah” and “The Spirit of the Sunnah”); <em>This Law of Ours and Other Essays, The Road to Mecca </em>and <em>The Message of the Qur’an</em>. The influence of hadith was also deeply manifested in his “journalistic monologue” <em>Arafat: A Monthly Critique of Muslim Thought, </em>a periodical he founded in 1946 in Kashmir and other works that addresses significance principles and issues of hadith and essays that incorporate rising themes in contemporary ages, such as “Social and Cultural Realities of the Sunnah”. The research was structured based on descriptive, analytical, historical and comparative method. It attempts to analyse the crucial ideas of hadith principles brought forth by Asad and compared these with other critical views set forth of classical Muslim traditionists. The study concluded that Muhammad Asad had significantly contributed to the revival and  development of hadith in the modern world with his profound translation and commentary of<em> al-Bukhari’s Sahih</em> – <em>Sahih al-Bukhari The Early Years of Islam</em> - that extensively survey the significant tradition of hadith and its intellectual and historical manifestation over centuries. He also responded to the traditional arguments by historian and orientalists who were sceptical of the historical authenticity of hadith narrative and tradition.]</span></p>

Л. Н. Герасимова

В статье рассматриваются изобразительные (образные) глаголы, участвующие в вербализации концепта «БОГАТЫРЬ» в эпическом тексте олонхо. Цель исследования – установление особенностей функционирования изобразительных глаголов в смысловом наполнении концепта и выявление наличия преемственности этих особенностей в якутских эпических текстах раннего и позднего периодов при сравнительном анализе. Для достижения поставленной цели использовались следующие методы исследования: метод концептуального анализа, метод сплошной выборки, компонентный анализ, метод семантического определения, метод контекстуального анализа, сравнительный метод. Выборка глаголов была произведена из текстов ранних записей – «Богатырь Тойон Нюргун» Н. Ф. Попова, «Нюргун Боотур Стремительный» К. Г. Оросина, «Ала Булкун богатырь» Т. В. Захарова – Чээбий, «Строптивый Кулун Куллустуур» И. Г. Теплоухова-Тимофеева; из поздних текстов олонхо – «Джирибинэ Боотур» В. О. Каратаева, «Сын лошади Богатырь Дыырай» И. И. Бурнашева – Тонг Суорун, «Кыырджыт Могучий» В. Н. Попова – Бочоох. В анализе было задействовано 13 изобразительных глаголов из ранних текстов и 27 глаголов из поздних текстов олонхо. Как показывает исследование, зафиксированные изобразительные глаголы привлечены для описания внешнего вида богатыря, его действий и движений. Кроме этого, в поздних текстах наблюдается использование изобразительных глаголов в описании телодвижений богатыря. Сравнительный анализ подтверждает сохранение преемственности в поздних текстах. Об этом свидетельствует, например, функционирование аналогичных изобразительных глаголов в описании телосложения богатыря. Изобразительные глаголы, как специальные речевые средства, способствуют лучшему раскрытию и пониманию содержания концепта «БОГАТЫРЬ». У сказителей поздних записей олонхо наблюдается обогащённый словарный запас, следовательно, они для полноты и яркости образа богатыря чаще прибегают к использованию изобразительных глаголов. The article deals with image-forming verbs involved in the verbalization of the concept of “BOGATYR” in the text of olonkho. The purpose of the study was to establish the features of the functioning of image-forming verbs in the semantic content of the concept and to identify the continuity of these features in the Yakut epic texts of the early and late periods in comparative analysis. To achieve this goal, the following research methods were used: the method of conceptual analysis, the method of continuous sampling, the component analysis, the method of semantic definition, the method of contextual analysis, and the comparative method. The selection of verbs was made from the texts of early recordings – “Bogatyr Toyon Nyurgun” by N. F. Popov, “Nyurgun Bootur the Swift” by K. G. Orosin, “Ala Bulkun bogatyr” by T. V. Zakharov – Cheebiy, “Kulun Kullustuur the Obstinate” by I. G. Teploukhov-Timofeev; from later texts – “Dzhiribine Bootur” by V. O. Karataev, “Son of a Horse Bogatyr Dyyray” by I. I. Burnashev – Tong Suorun, “The Mighty Kyyrdzhyt” by V. N. Popov – Bochookh. The analysis involved 13 image-forming verbs from early texts and 27 verbs from later olonkho texts. As the study shows, the fixed image-forming verbs are involved in describing the appearance of the bogatyr, his actions and movements. In addition, in later texts there is the use of image-forming verbs in describing the movement of the body parts of the bogatyr. Comparative analysis confirms the preservation of continuity in later texts. This is evidenced, for example, by the functioning of similar image-forming verbs in the description of the physical abilities of the bogatyr. Image-forming verbs, as special speech means, help to better reveal and understand the content of the concept “BOGATYR”. The olonkho-tellers of the later olonkho have an enriched vocabulary; therefore, for completeness and brightness of the image of the bogatyr, they more often resort to the use of image-forming verbs.

G.G. Ramazanova ◽  
Z.A. Zaripova

The Little Match Girl by H.Ch. Andersen is a fairy tale that tells a tragic story about a child's death at Christmas night. Famous Russian authors Yu. Buida and D. Bykov have written stories with the same names (The Little Match Girl and The Little Match Girl Gives a Light). The authors deliberately used these names to show the relation with the famous work. In both stories, the action is set within the timeline defined by the canons of religious calendarial prose. There are miracles in the stories; the Christmas characters are archetypes, as they are kind, merciful and compassionate. The stories written by the contemporary authors are examples of a kind of a palimpsest. They show the socio-historical collisions and moral problems of the post-Soviet time. The article uses the comparative method which allows us to consider the types of characters, to find literary traditions and innovations in the prose of the writers. It is important to take an intertextual approach during (when) examining the stories. It helps identify and analyze how certain motifs and images relate in the 19th century literature and fiction texts of modern writers. This approach reveals the deep connection between the works and the texts of world and Russian literary classics.

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