developmental age
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Alessio Danilo Inchingolo ◽  
Assunta Patano ◽  
Giovanni Coloccia ◽  
Sabino Ceci ◽  
Angelo Michele Inchingolo ◽  

Background: Elastodontics is a specific interceptive orthodontic treatment that uses removable elastomeric appliances. They are functional appliances that produce neuromuscular, orthopedic and dental effects. Thus, these devices are useful in the developmental age, when skeletal structures are characterized by important plasticity and adaptation capacity, allowing to remove factors responsible for malocclusions. Elastomeric devices are generally well tolerated by patients requiring simple collaboration and management. This work can be useful to update all orthodontists already adopting these appliances or for those who want to approach them for the first time. This study aimed to describe four cases treated with new elastomeric devices called AMCOP Bio-Activators and to provide an overview of elastodontics, its evolution, indications and limits. Methods: A total of four clinical cases were presented after a treatment period of 16–20 months to evaluate the clinical and radiological effects of the elastodontic therapy. Results: The effectiveness of Bio-Activators on clinical cases was evidenced with a significant improvement in skeletal and dentoalveolar relationship, and malocclusion correction in a limited treatment period (16–20 months). Conclusions: The Bio-Activators showed clinical effectiveness to achieve therapeutic targets according to a low impact on the patient’s compliance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Rupali Gupta ◽  
Dorin Elkabetz ◽  
Meirav Leibman-Markus ◽  
Elie Jami ◽  
Maya Bar

Abstract Background The interaction of plants with the complex microbial networks that inhabit them is important for plant health. While the reliance of plants on their microbial inhabitants for defense against invading pathogens is well documented, the acquisition of data concerning the relationships between plant developmental stage or aging, and microbiome assembly, is still underway. The plant hormone cytokinin (CK) regulates various plant growth and developmental processes. Here, examining the relationships between plant development and microbiome assembly, we observed developmental-age dependent changes in the phyllopshere microbiome. We show that age-related shifts in microbiome content vary based on content of, or sensitivity to, CK. Results We found a developmental age associated decline in microbial richness and diversity, accompanied by a decline in the presence of growth promoting and resistance inducing Bacilli in the phyllosphere. This decline was absent from CK-rich or CK-hypersensitive genotypes. Bacillus isolates we obtained from CK rich genotypes were found to alter the expression of developmental genes to support morphogenesis and alter the leaf developmental program when applied to seedlings, and enhance yield and agricultural productivity when applied to mature plants. Conclusions Our results support the notion that CK supports developmental functions in part via the bacterial community.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 637
Maciej Zaborowicz ◽  
Katarzyna Zaborowicz ◽  
Barbara Biedziak ◽  
Tomasz Garbowski

Dental age is one of the most reliable methods for determining a patient’s age. The timing of teething, the period of tooth replacement, or the degree of tooth attrition is an important diagnostic factor in the assessment of an individual’s developmental age. It is used in orthodontics, pediatric dentistry, endocrinology, forensic medicine, and pathomorphology, but also in scenarios regarding international adoptions and illegal immigrants. The methods used to date are time-consuming and not very precise. For this reason, artificial intelligence methods are increasingly used to estimate the age of a patient. The present work is a continuation of the work of Zaborowicz et al. In the presented research, a set of 21 original indicators was used to create deep neural network models. The aim of this study was to verify the ability to generate a more accurate deep neural network model compared to models produced previously. The quality parameters of the produced models were as follows. The MAE error of the produced models, depending on the learning set used, was between 2.34 and 4.61 months, while the RMSE error was between 5.58 and 7.49 months. The correlation coefficient R2 ranged from 0.92 to 0.96.

Marta Mazur ◽  
Artnora Ndokaj ◽  
Beatrice Marasca ◽  
Gian Luca Sfasciotti ◽  
Roberto Marasca ◽  

Germectomy is a procedure often required in patients at developmental age. It is defined as the surgical removal of the third molar at a very specific stage of development. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the literature in terms of clinical indications for germectomy in patients at developmental age. Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Scopus from 1952 to 30 June 2021. The study protocol was registered after the screening stage (PROSPERO CRD42021262949). The search strategy identified 3829 articles: 167 from PubMed, 2860 from Google Scholar, 799 from Cochrane Library and 3 from Scopus. Finally, eight full-text papers were included into the qualitative analysis. Based on the included studies, clinical indications for germectomy were mainly related to orthodontic causes, infectious and cariogenic causes and prophylaxis. Based on these results, it is not possible to present evidence-based clinical indications for germectomy in patients at developmental age. Clinical trials on this subject focused specifically on patients at developmental age are awaited.

2021 ◽  
Laura Tomas-Roca ◽  
Zhen Qiu ◽  
Erik Fransen ◽  
Ragini Gokhale ◽  
Edita Bulovaite ◽  

Neurodevelopmental disorders of genetic origin delay the acquisition of normal abilities and cause disabling phenotypes. Spontaneous attenuation and even complete amelioration of symptoms in early childhood and adolescence occur in many disorders, suggesting that brain circuits possess an intrinsic capacity to repair themselves. We examined the molecular composition of almost a trillion excitatory synapses on a brain-wide scale between birth and adulthood in mice carrying a mutation in the homeobox transcription factor Pax6, a neurodevelopmental disorder model. Pax6 haploinsufficiency had no impact on total synapse number at any age. By contrast, the postnatal expansion of synapse diversity and acquisition of normal synaptome architecture were delayed in all brain regions, interfering with network and cognitive functions. Specific excitatory synapse types and subtypes were affected in two key developmental age-windows. These phenotypes were reversed within 2-3 weeks of onset, restoring synaptome architecture to its normal developmental trajectory. Synapse subtypes with high rates of protein turnover mediated these events. These results show synaptome remodelling confers resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders.

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 1205
In Young Sung ◽  
Jin Sook Yuk ◽  
Dae-Hyun Jang ◽  
Gijeong Yun ◽  
Chunye Kim ◽  

Traditional education in special schools have some limitations. We aimed to investigate if the ‘touch screen-based cognitive training’ is feasible and effective for children with severe cognitive impairment (developmental age 18–36 months) in special education. In this case, 29 children were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 17, ‘touch screen-based cognitive training’, 30 min/session, 3 times/week, 12 weeks) and control (n = 12, traditional education) groups. Psychoeducational Profile-Revised (PEP-R), Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ), Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) were measured before and after 12 weeks of education. The ‘touch screen-based cognitive training’ was applicable in special education. When repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used, significant groupⅹtime effect was found for GAS, and significant group effect was found for ECBQ (attentional shifting) and GAS. When adjusting for pre-education measurements, the intervention had a significant effect on the post-education measurements of ECBQ (attentional shifting) and GAS (p < 0.05). No relationship existed between the degree of improvements and the severeness of developmental delay in the measurements. ‘Touch screen-based cognitive training’ in special school was feasible and it improved cognition in children with severe cognitive impairment (developmental age 18–36 months), irrespective of the severeness of the developmental delay.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 706-717
Andrea De Giacomo ◽  
Alessandra Murri ◽  
Emilia Matera ◽  
Francesco Pompamea ◽  
Francesco Craig ◽  

Objects: This study aimed to evaluate the Executive Function (EF) domains in a group of profoundly deaf children treated with cochlear implant (CI) in comparison to normal hearing (NH) children. The secondary aim was to evaluate the influence exerted by the age at cochlear implant activation on EFs. Materials and Methods: 32 children were enrolled into two groups: group A of 17 CI users with a mean age of 8.78 years and group B of 15 NH subjects with a mean age of 7.99 years (SD + 2.3). All subjects were tested using the following tests: the subtests for working memory of the neuropsychological evaluation battery for the developmental age (Batteria di valutazione neuropsicologica per l’età evolutive), inhibition and control of the impulsive response—CAF, and the tower of London test. Results: No children with CIs scored within the normal range in the tests administered for the evaluation of EF domains. The same scores were significantly lower when compared with scores obtained by NH children. Children with younger age at CI activation showed better executive performances in planning, working memory (backward digit span), and cognitive flexibility (categorical fluency). Conclusion: The results of this study highlight that cochlear implantation plays a role in improving hearing and consequently influences the development of EFs in deaf children.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
Angela Muschitiello

Oncological disease in developmental age represents a profoundly critical event, evoking suffering, anguish, and fear. Despite therapies' progress and recovery chances increase, unfortunately, aggressive and painful treatments involve significant changes in the image of their body, lifestyle, and social relationships for the adolescent. To avoid that all this affects evolutionary development, a holistic global therapeutic approach has been consolidated since the 1970s. This approach has shifted the concept of healing from that of the physical care of the sick to a more humanistic transformative one in which the care of the sick person also involves their complexity, emotions, relationships, desires, etc. By developing a multidimensional approach to the person felt, listened to, and lived in its totality, music therapy represents effective educational support capable of generating well-being and beauty even in the adolescent oncological path.

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