Abstract Earias vittellaFabricius, 1794 (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) is deliberated to be one of the most destructive pests of cotton and okra vegetation in the world including Asia. The pest has established resistance to various synthetic insecticides. The use of bio-pesticide is one of the unconventional approaches to develop a vigorous ecosystem without harming non- target pests and beneficial natural insect fauna. In the present study, the toxicity levels of Citrullus colocynthis seed extract have been evaluated against the populations of E. vittellaunder standardized laboratory conditions. The toxic effects of C. colocynthis on development periods, protein contents and esterase activity of the life stages of E. vittella were also evaluated. The toxicity levels of methanol, ethanol, hexane, water and profenofos were evaluated on the 1st instar larvae of E. vittella. LC30 and LC80 concentrations exhibited the effectiveness of methanol-based C. colocynthis seed extract against 1st instar larvae of E. vitella. The enhanced larval and pupal periods were revealed in treated samples during the comparison with untreated samples. The intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rate in the LC30 and LC80 concentrations exposed larvae remained less than the control treatment. Fecundity, the esterase activity and protein contents were declined in LC30 and LC80 treated samples as compared to the control. The present findings suggest that C. colosynthis extracts based botanical insecticides are beneficial, ecosystem sustainable and can be integrated with insect management programs from environment safety perspective.
The linear trends in the monthly, seasonal and annual mean maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average temperature, diurnal range of temperature, rainfall, relative humidities at 0830 & 1730 hr IST of Bangalore city and airport have been analysed based on the data for the period from 1960-95. The variation in surface wind over Bangalore during above period has also been studied to find out impact of urbanisation on weather parameters. It is found that Bangalore city is becoming warmer in terms of mean maximum & mean minimum temperatures. Rate of increase is significantly higher over Bangalore city (central observatory) than that over airport during winter months. Similarly the rising trend of average temperature of Bangalore city is higher than of Bangalore airport during October to April being significantly so during winter season. Also the diurnal range of temperature of Bangalore is becoming larger in winter months with the rising trend being higher over Bangalore city than over airport. Even though rainfall does not show any significant trend, the rising trend during monsoon & falling trend during post monsoon season over Bangalore city are higher than that of Bangalore airport. Also though both Bangalore city & airport show maximum rising trend in mean relative humidity at 0830 hr IST during winter, the rate of rise is less over Bangalore city. Similarly though the relative humidity at 1730 hr IST shows decreasing trend during all the seasons, the rate of decrease is less over Bangalore city for all seasons except post monsoon season. The mean maximum, minimum and average temperatures and relative humidities show cyclic variation of their monthly trend coefficients during the year.
The soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean and poses a serious threat to soybean production. Studies on the effect of acetamiprid on the life table parameters of A. glycines, provide important information for the effective management of this pest. We found that exposure to acetamiprid at LC50 significantly extended the mean generation time, adult pre-reproductive period, and total pre-reproduction period compared with the control, whereas exposure to acetamiprid at LC30 significantly shortened these periods. Exposure to acetamiprid at both LC30 and LC50 significantly decreased the fecundity of the female adult, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase compared with the control. The probability of attaining the adult stage was 0.51, 0.38, and 0.86 for a newly born nymph from the LC30 acetamiprid treatment group, LC50 acetamiprid treatment group, and control group, respectively. Acetamiprid at both LC50 and LC30 exerted stress effects on A. glycines, with the LC50 treatment significantly decreased the growth rate compared with the LC30 treatment. The present study provides reference data that could facilitate the exploration of the effects of acetamiprid on A. glycines in the field.
ООО «PskovAgroInvest» pays great attention to the rearing of replacement young animals. The rate of increase in the intensity of raising heifers on the farm meets the standards and requirements of pedigree dairy cattle breeding. The farm uses stage-bystage rearing of replacement young stock, taking into account its age. A group approach to rearing young animals. Replacement heifers use natural and cultivated pastures in the summer. In recent years, the age of replacement heifers at the first insemination has noticeably decreased and approached the norm. At the same time, the live weight of animals at the first insemination increased, which in 2020 amounted to 460 kg, which opens up prospects for a further decrease in the age of the first insemination. This became possible due to an increase in the average daily growth in cultivation, which regularly increases every year and amounts to 756 g in 2020, which is 98 g, or 14.9%, more than in 2016. From table 2 it follows that in recent years, at all age periods, replacement heifers had a live weight exceeding the breed standard, which is 250 kg at 10-month-old, 290 kg at 12-month-old and 390 kg at 18-month-old age. At the same time, an increase in the average live weight of the replacement livestock is observed every year. So, in 2020, the value of the indicator was 278 kg at the age of 10 months, 331 kg at the age of 12 months, 463 kg at the age of 18 months, which is 16 kg, 54 kg and 75 kg, or 6.1%, 19, 5% and 19.3%, more than in 2016, respectively. Thus, the analyzed period allows us to conclude about the effectiveness of zootechnical work to improve the rearing of replacement heifers on the farm, but it must be continued in order to reduce the age of first insemination to 15–17 months with the optimal live weight of the livestock.
Biological characteristics and life table parameters of Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein) were revealed on four different citrus species: grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. cv. Star Ruby), lemon (C. limon (L.) Burm. f. cv. Meyer), mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco cv. Okitsu) and orange (C. sinensis L. cv. Washington Navel) under laboratory conditions. Results show that oviposition period, fecundity, and life table parameters varied significantly depending on the host plant species. Furthermore, host plant species had little effect on immature development, except for the teleiochrysalis and total developmental period, which was significantly shorter on lemon (13.77 days for females, 12.67 days for males). Total mean numbers of eggs laid by E. orientalis was 15.92 on mandarin and 29.78 on lemon. In addition, intrinsic rate of increase (rm), net reproductive rate (R0), finite rate of increase (λ) and doubling time (DT) are 0.12 day–1, 10.41 ♀/♀, 1.13 day–1 and 5.59 days for lemon, 0.17 day–1, 22.36 ♀/♀, 1.19 day–1 and 4.04 days for grapefruit, respectively. However, shortest and longest mean generation times (To) were obtained at 18.26 days on orange and 19.37 days on grapefruit. Our results demonstrate that intergeneric differences of Citrus should be considered when determining E. orientalis population abundance and dynamics in field conditions.
Aim. According to hospital-based registry, to evaluate the age characteristics and prevalence of concomitant cardiovascular and non-сardiovascular diseases in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during epidemic wave.Material and methods. The TARGET-VIP register included 1130 patients aged 57,5+12,8 years (men, 51,2%) hospitalized at the Pirogov National Medical and Surgical Center from April 6, 2020 to June 22, 2020 with COVID-19. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were diagnosed in 51,6% of patients, non-сardiovascular chronic diseases — in 48,6%, while CVDs and/or non-сardiovascular chronic diseases — in 65,8% of patients.Results. The average age of patients significantly increased by an average of 0,77 years per week (p<0,001), while the difference between the 1st week (52,8 years) and 11th week (62,2 years) was 9,4 years; the proportion of men did not change significantly. The proportion of patients with CVDs increased significantly — from 34,2% to 66,7%, on average by 3,7% per week (p<0,001; Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR)=1,037; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1,017-1,058), with chronic non-cardiovascular diseases — from 32,5% to 43,2%, on average by 2,5% per week (p<0,001; IRR=1,025; 95% CI, 1,002-1,049), as well as those with CVDs and/or chronic non-cardiovascular diseases — from 47,5% to 75,3%, on average by 3,2% per week (p<0,001; IRR=1,032; 95% CI, 1,017-1,048). Over the entire period, the proportion of people with hypertension (HTN) was 47,0%, with coronary artery disease (CAD) — 15,4%, with heart failure (HF) — 4,0%, and with atrial fibrillation (AF) — 10,1%. The proportion of patients with HTN increased by 9,5% (p<0,001; OR=1,095; 95% CI, 1,047-1,144), with СAD — by 9,4% (p=0,01; OR=1,094; 95% CI, 1,022-1,172) and with AF — by 9,4% (p<0,001; OR=1,094; 95% CI, 1,023-1,170) per week. The proportion of patients with diabetes was 16,5%, with respiratory diseases — 11,4%, with chronic kidney disease (CKD) — 12,6%, with digestive diseases — 22,5%, with obesity — 6,1%. During the epidemic wave, the most pronounced increase in the proportion of patients with CKD was by 6,2% (p=0,036; OR=1,062; 95% CI, 1,004-1,124) and with digestive diseases — by 6,0% (p=0,01; OR=1,060; 95% CI, 1,014-1,109) per week.Conclusion. According to the 11-week TARGET-VIP registry, the age of patients increased by 9,4 years, CVD cases — by 1,9 times (mainly HTN, CAD, AF), and chronic nonсardiovascular pathology — by 1,3 times (mainly CKD and digestive diseases). These trends in hospital practice corresponded to a weekly increase in the proportion of patients with a higher risk of fatal and non-fatal complications, which is the basis for further research in order to develop a system for a comprehensive prognostic assessment of the degree and rate of increase in the load on hospitals during COVID-19 epidemic wave.
Background & Aims: Globally, there has been a concerning rise in the incidence of young-onset cancers. The aim of this study was to provide trends in the incidence and survival of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas (oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, and colorectal) in South Australia over a 27-year period. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective longitudinal database including all cases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas prospectively reported to the South Australian (State) Cancer Registry from 1990 to 2017. Results: A total of 28,566 patients diagnosed with oesophageal, stomach, pancreatic, or colorectal adenocarcinoma between 1990 and 2017 were included in the study. While the overall incidence for gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas in individuals >50 years has decreased since 2000 (IRR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.94–1.00; p = 0.06)) compared to 1990–1999, the rate amongst individuals aged 18–50 has significantly increased (IRR 1.41 (95% CI 1.27–1.57; p <0.001)) during the same reference time period. Although noted in both sexes, the rate of increase in incidence was significantly greater in males (11.5 to 19.7/100,000; p <0.001). The overall survival from adenocarcinomas across all subsites improved in the >50-year cohort in the last decade (HR 0.89 (95% CI 0.86–0.93; p <0.001)) compared to 1990–1999. In individuals aged 18–50 years, there has only been a significant improvement in survival for colorectal cancer (HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.68–0.99; p <0.04)), but not the other subsites. A lower overall survival was noted for males in both age cohorts (18–50 years—HR 1.24 (95% CI 1.09–1.13; p <0.01) and >50 years—HR 1.13 (95% CI 1.10–1.16; p <0.001), respectively) compared to females. Conclusions: This study from South Australia demonstrates a significant increase in young-onset gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas over the last 28 years, with a greater increase in the male sex. The only significant improvement in survival in this cohort has been noted in colorectal cancer patients.
Bemisia tabaci and the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, are two major cosmopolitan pests that often occur together and cause severe economic losses to cruciferous crops. However, little is known about how they interact with each other. To determine the effects of defense responses induced by the two pests on the biology and population dynamics of the herbivores, we studied the performance and fitness of B. tabaci and DBM when they damaged Chinese kale simultaneously and in different orders. The results showed that DBM pre-infestation shortened the developmental duration, increased longevity, oviposition days, and fecundity of B. tabaci. Meanwhile, the intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R0) and finite rate of increase (λ) of B. tabaci increased significantly with dual infection as compared with only B. tabaci infestation. In contrast, B. tabaci pre-infestation reduced the longevity and oviposition days of DBM, but the population parameters r, R0, and λ did not vary significantly compared with only DBM infestation. Thus, co-infestation of B. tabaci and DBM was beneficial to the performance of the B. tabaci population. The present findings highlight that B. tabaci has become a dominant competitor when mixing with DBM on the same host plant.
Cerebrovascular control is carried out by multiple nonlinear mechanisms imposing a certain degree of coupling between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and mean cerebral blood flow (MCBF). We explored the ability of two nonlinear tools in the information domain, namely cross-approximate entropy (CApEn) and cross-sample entropy (CSampEn), to assess the degree of asynchrony between the spontaneous fluctuations of MAP and MCBF. CApEn and CSampEn were computed as a function of the translation time. The analysis was carried out in 23 subjects undergoing recordings at rest in supine position (REST) and during active standing (STAND), before and after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). We found that at REST the degree of asynchrony raised, and the rate of increase in asynchrony with the translation time decreased after SAVR. These results are likely the consequence of the limited variability of MAP observed after surgery at REST, more than the consequence of a modified cerebrovascular control, given that the observed differences disappeared during STAND. CApEn and CSampEn can be utilized fruitfully in the context of the evaluation of cerebrovascular control via the noninvasive acquisition of the spontaneous MAP and MCBF variability.
The terrestrial radiant fluxes are being measured regularly at Pune using a balloon-borne radiometersonde. The net terrestrial radiant fluxes obtained from these measurements over a decade have been studied and results presented. The net terrestrial radiant flux increases with height and reaches a maximum around 12 km and then the rate of increase slows down near tropopause. In the lower stratosphere the fluxes again Increase before reaching a nearly steady value at around 25 km. The clouds and rainfall distributions seriously distort the radiation field.