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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Zakaria Benomar ◽  
Francesco Longo ◽  
Giovanni Merlino ◽  
Antonio Puliafito

In Cloud computing deployments, specifically in the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) model, networking is one of the core enabling facilities provided for the users. The IaaS approach ensures significant flexibility and manageability, since the networking resources and topologies are entirely under users’ control. In this context, considerable efforts have been devoted to promoting the Cloud paradigm as a suitable solution for managing IoT environments. Deep and genuine integration between the two ecosystems, Cloud and IoT, may only be attainable at the IaaS level. In light of extending the IoT domain capabilities’ with Cloud-based mechanisms akin to the IaaS Cloud model, network virtualization is a fundamental enabler of infrastructure-oriented IoT deployments. Indeed, an IoT deployment without networking resilience and adaptability makes it unsuitable to meet user-level demands and services’ requirements. Such a limitation makes the IoT-based services adopted in very specific and statically defined scenarios, thus leading to limited plurality and diversity of use cases. This article presents a Cloud-based approach for network virtualization in an IoT context using the de-facto standard IaaS middleware, OpenStack, and its networking subsystem, Neutron. OpenStack is being extended to enable the instantiation of virtual/overlay networks between Cloud-based instances (e.g., virtual machines, containers, and bare metal servers) and/or geographically distributed IoT nodes deployed at the network edge.

2022 ◽  
Vol 134 ◽  
pp. 104096
Shoujun Jia ◽  
Chun Liu ◽  
Xianjun Guan ◽  
Hangbin Wu ◽  
Doudou Zeng ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 404
Yaqing Gou ◽  
Casey M. Ryan ◽  
Johannes Reiche

Soil moisture effects limit radar-based aboveground biomass carbon (AGBC) prediction accuracy as well as lead to stripes between adjacent paths in regional mosaics due to varying soil moisture conditions on different acquisition dates. In this study, we utilised the semi-empirical water cloud model (WCM) to account for backscattering from soil moisture in AGBC retrieval from L-band radar imagery in central Mozambique, where woodland ecosystems dominate. Cross-validation results suggest that (1) the standard WCM effectively accounts for soil moisture effects, especially for areas with AGBC ≤ 20 tC/ha, and (2) the standard WCM significantly improved the quality of regional AGBC mosaics by reducing the stripes between adjacent paths caused by the difference in soil moisture conditions between different acquisition dates. By applying the standard WCM, the difference in mean predicted AGBC for the tested path with the largest soil moisture difference was reduced by 18.6%. The WCM is a valuable tool for AGBC mapping by reducing prediction uncertainties and striping effects in regional mosaics, especially in low-biomass areas including African woodlands and other woodland and savanna regions. It is repeatable for recent L-band data including ALOS-2 PALSAR-2, and upcoming SAOCOM and NISAR data.

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 266
Wenzhi Cao ◽  
Jilin Deng ◽  
Yi Yang ◽  
Yangyan Zeng ◽  
Limei Liu

The scientific and reasonable evaluation of the carrying capacity of water resources is of guiding significance for solving the issues of water resource shortages and pollution control. It is also an important method for realizing the sustainable development of water resources. Aiming at an evaluation of the carrying capacity of water resources, an evaluation model based on the cloud model theory and evidential reasoning approach is studied. First, based on the existing indicators, a water resources evaluation index system based on the pressure-state-response (PSR) model is constructed, and a classification method of carrying capacity grade is designed. The cloud model theory is used to realize the transformation between the measured value of indicators and the degree of correlation. Second, to obtain the weight of the evaluation index, the weight method of the index weights model based on the entropy weight method and evidential reasoning approach is proposed. Then, the reliability distribution function of the evaluation index and the graded probability distribution of the carrying capacity of water resources are obtained by an evidential reasoning approach. Finally, the evaluation method of the carrying capacity of water resources is constructed, and specific steps are provided. The proposed method is applied to the evaluation of water resources carrying capacity for Hunan Province, which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the method proposed in the present study. This paper applies this method of the evaluation of the water resources carrying capacity of Hunan Province from 2010 to 2019. It is concluded that the water resources carrying capacity of Hunan Province belongs to III~V, which is between the critical state and the strong carrying capacity state. The carrying capacity of the province’s water resources is basically on the rise. This shows that the carrying capacity of water resources in Hunan Province is in good condition, and corresponding protective measures should be taken to continue the current state.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 801
Youyun Wang ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Zhuo Yang ◽  
Xin Cheng

An intelligent control strategy based on a membership cloud model in a high reliable off-grid microgrid with a reconfigurable inverter is proposed in this paper. The operating principle of the off-grid microgrid with the reconfigurable inverter is provided, which contains four operating modes. An open-circuit fault diagnosis for the inverter is presented first. The polarities of the midpoint voltages defined in the paper are used to recognize the faulty power switch. The reconfigurable inverter allows the power switches of different bridges to be reconfigured, when there are power switches faulty, to let the inverter operate in faulty state. The working principle of the reconfigurable inverter is given. The membership cloud model with two output channels is built to obtain the virtual impedance to suppress the circulating currents between inverters when the reconfigurable inverter is in faulty state. A pulse resetting method is presented. The general intelligent control strategy for the reconfigurable inverter is formed as the droop-virtual impedance-voltage-current-pulses resetting control. The validity of the intelligent control strategy of the system is verified by simulation.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 580
Emna Ayari ◽  
Zeineb Kassouk ◽  
Zohra Lili-Chabaane ◽  
Nicolas Baghdadi ◽  
Mehrez Zribi

The objective of this paper was to estimate soil moisture in pepper crops with drip irrigation in a semi-arid area in the center of Tunisia using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Within this context, the sensitivity of L-band (ALOS-2) in horizontal-horizontal (HH) and horizontal-vertical (HV) polarizations and C-band (Sentinel-1) data in vertical-vertical (VV) and vertical-horizontal (VH) polarizations is examined as a function of soil moisture and vegetation properties using statistical correlations. SAR signals scattered by pepper-covered fields are simulated with a modified version of the water cloud model using L-HH and C-VV data. In spatially heterogeneous soil moisture cases, the total backscattering is the sum of the bare soil contribution weighted by the proportion of bare soil (one-cover fraction) and the vegetation fraction cover contribution. The vegetation fraction contribution is calculated as the volume scattering contribution of the vegetation and underlying soil components attenuated by the vegetation cover. The underlying soil is divided into irrigated and non-irrigated parts owing to the presence of drip irrigation, thus generating different levels of moisture underneath vegetation. Based on signal sensitivity results, the potential of L-HH data to retrieve soil moisture is demonstrated. L-HV data exhibit a higher potential to retrieve vegetation properties regarding a lower potential for soil moisture estimation. After calibration and validation of the proposed model, various simulations are performed to assess the model behavior patterns under different conditions of soil moisture and pepper biophysical properties. The results highlight the potential of the proposed model to simulate a radar signal over heterogeneous soil moisture fields using L-HH and C-VV data.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Xiaohong Zhu ◽  
Jianhong Jia ◽  
Zhongwei Cai

In order to study the fracture ability classification of rock mass under the cracking action of supercritical CO2 phase transition, based on the classification theory of rock mass in blasting engineering, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-entropy weight method (EWM) and the cloud model classification method for rock mass cracking under CO2 phase transformation are proposed. In this method, rock density, rock tensile strength, rock wave impedance, and rock mass integrity coefficient are used as the factors to determine the level of rock mass fracturing, and the evaluation index system of rock mass fracturing is established. Through this evaluation method, the rock mass in a reconstruction project section of Nyingchi, Tibet, is classified and evaluated. The results present that this new classification method of rock mass fracture ability uses AHP–EWM to carry out the weight distribution of the classification index. In addition, it is combined with the cloud model for the classification division, overcoming the traditional classification method fixed with appraisal pattern flaw. Therefore, it has validity and feasibility. According to the characteristics of fracture ability, the rock masses in the area to be rebuilt on the Tibet Highway are divided into grade II, grade III, and grade IV, which provides scientific guidance for the construction of the project.

2022 ◽  
Sachin Patade ◽  
Vaughan Phillips ◽  
Deepak Waman ◽  
Akash Deshmukh ◽  
Ashok Kumar Gupta ◽  

Abstract. A new empirical parameterization (EP) for multiple groups of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) is implemented in the aerosol cloud model (AC) to investigate their roles as ice-nucleating particles (INPs). The EP describes the heterogeneous ice nucleation by (1) fungal spores, (2) bacteria, (3) pollen, (4) detritus of plants, animals, and viruses, and (5) algae. Each group includes fragments from the originally emitted particles. A high-resolution simulation of a midlatitude mesoscale squall line by AC is validated against airborne and ground observations. Sensitivity tests are carried out by varying the initial vertical profiles of the loadings of individual PBAP groups. The resulting changes in warm and ice microphysical parameters are investigated. Overall, PBAPs have little effect on the ice phase, especially in the convective region. In the stratiform region, increasing the initial PBAP loadings by a factor of 100 resulted in less than 60 % change in ice number concentrations. The total ice concentration is mostly controlled by various mechanisms of secondary ice production (SIP). However, when SIP is artificially prohibited in sensitivity tests, increasing the PBAP loading by a factor of 100 has no significant effect on the ice phase. Further sensitivity tests revealed that PBAPs have little effect on surface precipitation as well as on shortwave and longwave flux.

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