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2022 ◽  
Remy E Walk ◽  
Hong Joo Moon ◽  
Simon Y Tang ◽  
Munish C Gupta

Study Design: Preclinical animal study. Objective: Evaluation of the degenerative progression resulting from either a partial- or full- width injury to the mouse lumbar intervertebral disc (IVD) using contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography and histological analyses. We utilized a lateral-retroperitoneal surgical approach to access the lumbar IVD, and the injuries to the IVD were induced by either incising one side of the annulus fibrosus or puncturing both sides of the annulus fibrosus. The full-width injury caused dramatic reduction in nucleus pulposus hydration and significant degeneration. A partial-width injury produces localized deterioration around the annulus fibrosus site that resulted in local tissue remodeling without gross degeneration to the IVD. Methods: Female C57BL/6J mice of 3-4 months age were used in this study. They were divided into three groups to undergo a partial-width, full-width, or sham injuries. The L5/L6 and L6/S1 lumbar IVDs were surgically exposed using a lateral-retroperitoneal approach. The L6/S1 IVDs were injured using either a surgical scalpel (partial-width) or a 33G needle (full-width), with the L5/L6 serving as an internal control. These animals were allowed to recover and then sacrificed at 2-, 4-, or 8- weeks post-surgery. The IVDs were assessed for degeneration using contrast-enhanced microCT (CEμCT) and histological analysis. Results: The high-resolution 3D evaluation of the IVD confirmed that the respective injuries localized within one side of the annulus fibrosus or spanned the full width of the IVD. The full-width injury caused deteriorations in the nucleus pulposus after 2 weeks that culminated in significant degeneration at 8 weeks, while the partial width injury caused localized disruptions that remained limited to the annulus fibrosus. Conclusion: The use of CEμCT revealed distinct IVD degeneration profiles resulting from partial- and full- width injuries. The partial width injury may serve as a better model for IVD degeneration resulting from localized annulus fibrosus injuries in humans.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 65-70
Gaurav Govil ◽  
Lavindra Tomar ◽  
Pawan Dhawan

The crisis of Covid-19 has shaken the world healthcare systems. The intensive care resources to manage the medical conditions associated with Covid-19 are consistently found to be inadequate with exploration and implementation of newer treatment avenues for an early recovery. Presently, the use of Tocilizumab (TCZ) in severe to critical affection of Covid-19 is being practiced as an off-label therapy. A narrative review of present knowledge regarding TCZ pharmacology, indications of its use, and potential side effects with clinical implications for an orthopedic surgeon is presented. The article discusses the clinicopathological factors required to be monitored during the perioperative management of an orthopedic patient who may have received TCZ for Covid-19 related illness. The implications of its usage should alert the orthopaedic surgeons for future management of their arthritic surgical patients. The commonly associated side effects and complications in the post-operative phase following an arthroplasty or any orthopaedic surgery are an area of concern and considerable uncertainty. In the post-Covid-19 recovery phase, when surgeons need to plan a surgical intervention then a thorough evaluation of their Covid-19 medical management history may be warranted. Practical guidelines for the management of arthritic surgical patients have been postulated. With an unregulated increased usage of TCZ during Covid-19 management, an orthopaedic surgeon should worry and needs to be aware of the possible consequences in the perioperative period for the post-surgery management. Future research to gain more insights will confirm the implied concerns.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 507
Rachel Kelly ◽  
Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans ◽  
Charlène Joséphine ◽  
Emmanuel Brouillet ◽  
Declan P. McKernan ◽  

Since the discovery of α-synuclein as the major component in Lewy bodies, research into this protein in the context of Parkinson’s disease pathology has been exponential. Cannabinoids are being investigated as potential therapies for Parkinson’s disease from numerous aspects, but still little is known about the links between the cannabinoid system and the pathogenic α-synuclein protein; understanding these links will be necessary if cannabinoid therapies are to reach the clinic in the future. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the time-course of alterations in components of the endocannabinoid system after viral-mediated α-synuclein overexpression in the rat brain. Rats were given unilateral intranigral injections of AAV-GFP or AAV-α-synuclein and sacrificed 4, 8 and 12 weeks later for qRT-PCR and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses of the endocannabinoid system, in addition to histological visualization of α-synuclein expression along the nigrostriatal pathway. As anticipated, intranigral delivery of AAV-α-synuclein induced widespread overexpression of human α-synuclein in the nigrostriatal pathway, both at the mRNA level and the protein level. However, despite this profound α-synuclein overexpression, we detected no differences in CB1 or CB2 receptor expression in the nigrostriatal pathway; however, interestingly, there was a reduction in the expression of neuroinflammatory markers. Furthermore, there was a reduction in the levels of the endocannabinoid 2-AG and the related lipid immune mediator OEA at week 12 post-surgery, indicating that α-synuclein overexpression triggers dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system. Although this research does show that the endocannabinoid system is impacted by α-synuclein, further research is necessary to more comprehensively understand the link between the cannabinoid system and the α-synuclein aspect of Parkinson’s disease pathology in order for cannabinoid-based therapies to be feasible for the treatment of this disease in the coming years.

2022 ◽  
Leming Shi ◽  
Jun Shang ◽  
Yue Zhao ◽  
He Jiang ◽  
Jingcheng Yang ◽  

Abstract Patients with adenocarcinomas in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive (MIA) lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) are curable by surgery, whereas 20% stage I patients die within five years post-operative. We hypothesize that poor-prognosis stage I patients may exhibit key molecular characteristics deviating from AIS/MIA. Focal adhesion (FA) was identified as the only pathway significantly perturbed at both genomic and transcriptomic levels by comparing 98 AIS/MIA and 99 LUAD. Then, two FA genes (COL11A1 and THBS2) were found strongly upregulated from AIS/MIA to stage I while steadily expressed from normal to AIS/MIA. Furthermore, unsupervised clustering separated stage I patients into two molecularly and prognostically distinct subtypes (S1 and S2) based on COL11A1 and THBS2 expressions (FA2). Subtype S1 resembled AIS/MIA, whereas S2 exhibited more somatic alterations and activated cancer-associated fibroblast. The simple knowledge-driven model was validated with 12 external datasets, showing potential in identifying high-risk stage I patients for more intensive post-surgery treatment.

Aimy H. L. Tran ◽  
Ken L. Chin ◽  
Rosemary S. C. Horne ◽  
Danny Liew ◽  
Joanne Rimmer ◽  

Abstract Background Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, is the leading reason for paediatric unplanned hospital readmission, some of which are potentially avoidable. Reducing unplanned hospital revisits would improve patient safety and decrease use of healthcare resources. This study aimed to describe the incidence, timing and risk factors for any surgery-related hospital revisits (both emergency presentation and readmission) following paediatric tonsillectomy and adenotonsillectomy in a large state-wide cohort. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked administrative datasets capturing all paediatric tonsillectomy and adenotonsillectomy surgeries performed between 2010 and 2015 in the state of Victoria, Australia. The primary outcome was presentation to the emergency department or hospital readmission within 30-day post-surgery. Results Between 2010 and 2015, 46,583 patients underwent 47,054 surgeries. There was a total of 4758 emergency department presentations (10.11% total surgeries) and 2750 readmissions (5.84% total surgeries). Haemorrhage was the most common reason for both revisit types, associated with 33.02% of ED presentations (3.34% total surgeries) and 67.93% of readmissions (3.97% total surgeries). Day 5 post-surgery was the median revisit time for both ED presentations (IQR 3–7) and readmission (IQR 3–8). Predictors of revisit included older age, public and metropolitan hospitals and peri-operative complications during surgery. Conclusions Haemorrhage was the most common reason for both emergency department presentation and hospital readmission. The higher risk of revisits associated with older children, surgeries performed in public and metropolitan hospitals, and in patients experiencing peri-operative complications, suggest the need for improved education of postoperative care for caregivers, and avoidance of inappropriate early discharge. Graphical Abstract

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 304
Osnat Kaniel ◽  
Shiri Sherf-Dagan ◽  
Amir Szold ◽  
Peter Langer ◽  
Boris Khalfin ◽  

One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) is an emerging bariatric procedure, yet data on its effect on the gastrointestinal tract are lacking. This study sought to evaluate the incidence of small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) following OAGB; explore its effect on nutritional, gastrointestinal, and weight outcomes; and assess post-OABG occurrence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) and altered gut microbiota composition. A prospective pilot cohort study of patients who underwent primary-OAGB surgery is here reported. The pre-surgical and 6-months-post-surgery measurements included anthropometrics, glucose breath-tests, biochemical tests, gastrointestinal symptoms, quality-of-life, dietary intake, and fecal sample collection. Thirty-two patients (50% females, 44.5 ± 12.3 years) participated in this study, and 29 attended the 6-month follow-up visit. The mean excess weight loss at 6 months post-OAGB was 67.8 ± 21.2%. The glucose breath-test was negative in all pre-surgery and positive in 37.0% at 6 months (p = 0.004). Positive glucose breath-test was associated with lower reported dietary intake and folate levels and higher vitamin A deficiency rates (p ≤ 0.036). Fecal elastase-1 test (FE1) was negative for all pre-surgery and positive in 26.1% at 6 months (p = 0.500). Both alpha and beta diversity decreased at 6 months post-surgery compared to pre-surgery (p ≤ 0.026). Relatively high incidences of SIBO and PEI were observed at 6 months post-OAGB, which may explain some gastrointestinal symptoms and nutritional deficiencies.

2022 ◽  
Ali Abd El-Hakam Ali El-Hayes ◽  
Ashraf Ali Eldemerdash ◽  
Sameh Saad Mandour ◽  
Hesham Mohamed El Mazar

Abstract Objective: To compare the effectiveness of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy with ologen implant versus endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy with silicon tube implantation.Background: Chronic dacryocystitis is an inflammatory disorder of the lacrimal sac that is mostly accompanied by partial or total nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Watering and discharge are the most common symptoms, however some cases can escalate to serious ocular and extraocular complications. It can result in severe ocular morbidity and loss of productivity at work, as it can temporarily obscure vision, prevent a person from concentrating on their task, and be socially uncomfortable. The goal of this research is to find a way to reduce recurrence after DCR surgery.Methods: We conducted a prospective controlled study to evaluate effectiveness of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy with ologen implant versus endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy with silicon tube implantation. A total of 40 patients underwent primary endoscopic DCR surgery in Menoufia University Hospital from march 2020 till march 2021. A total of 20 cases did endoscopic DCR using ologen implant (group A) and the other 20 cases did endoscopic DCR using silicon tube (group B). Results: The success rate, which was evaluated by MUNK score and syringing test, was compared between both groups also rate of complications like epistaxis, implant complications and post surgery synechiae was compared. Success rates was 75% in ologen group and 85%in the other group. Epistaxis, infection and post sugery synechiae were statistically in significant between the two groups but implant complications was more in ologen group than the other group.Conclusion: Endoscopic DCR with ologen implantation is not superior to endoscopic DCR with silicon stenting due to the challenging ologen implantation procedure and the high cost relative to silicon stenting.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 143
Teresa Auguet ◽  
Miguel Lopez-Dupla ◽  
Jessica Ramos ◽  
Laia Bertran ◽  
David Riesco ◽  

Many patients with clinically severe obesity (CSO) need to undergo bariatric surgery, with possible side effects, so individualized predictive methods are required. Adipocytokines and gut/intestinal microbiota-derived metabolites could be predictive biomarkers of metabolic success post- surgery, but the knowledge in this field is undefined. The objective of this work was to determine whether adipocytokines and microbiota-derived metabolites can be used to predict the metabolic improvement post- surgery in women with CSO. We analyzed circulating levels of some cytokines and some microbiota-derived metabolites at baseline and 12 months post-surgery from 44 women with CSO and 21 women with normal weight. Results showed that glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and triglycerides levels were decreased post-surgery, while high density lipoprotein increased. Twelve months later, leptin, resistin, lipocalin, PAI-1, TNF-α, and IL-1β levels were lower than baseline, meanwhile adiponectin, IL-8, and IL-10 levels were increased. Moreover, baseline lipocalin levels were associated with HbA1c reduction post-surgery; meanwhile baseline resistin was related to postoperative HOMA2 (insulin resistance) and baseline propionate was associated with LDL-C decrease. To conclude, the detection of lipocalin, resistin, and propionate levels may be used to predict the metabolic success following bariatric surgery, although new knowledge is needed.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1262
Jean Noronha ◽  
Stephen Samuel ◽  
Vijay Pratap Singh ◽  
H Shivananda Prabhu

Background: Prehabilitation is a therapeutic strategy involving preoperative physical exercises, nutritional support, and stress and anxiety reduction. This approach has been gaining popularity and has been seeing effective results in adults in terms of improving pre and postoperative outcomes. The purpose of this review was to summarise the evidence about the effects of exercise-based prehabilitation programs on various outcome measures in children post elective surgeries.­­ Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, PEDro, CINAHL/EBSCO and EMBASE electronic databases were searched from inception to June 2021. Based on the inclusion criteria, titles and abstracts were independently screened by the authors. After that, a data extraction table of the selected studies which included the participants, type, and details of exercise intervention, outcome measures and results were analysed after which the quality assessment of the studies was done. Results: The search yielded 2219 articles of which three articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria with two studies being randomized controlled trials and one being a quasi-experimental pre-post type of study. One randomized controlled trial was on the effects of exercise-based prehabilitation in reducing pulmonary complications post cardiac surgeries in children and the other two studies were on the effects of prehabilitation on functional capacity & pulmonary function. All the three articles found that exercise-based prehabilitation had a positive effect on children’s post-surgery. Conclusion: Although there is a paucity of evidence-based literature, we conclude based on the existing literature retrieved by our review that exercise-based prehabilitation improves postoperative outcomes and helps in reducing postoperative complications in children undergoing various surgeries.

Roberto Farina ◽  
Anna Simonelli ◽  
Giovanni Franceschetti ◽  
Luigi Minenna ◽  
Gian Pietro Schincaglia ◽  

Abstract Objectives The present study was performed to comparatively evaluate the peri-implant bone stability and conditions of marginal tissues at 3 years following transcrestal and lateral sinus floor elevation (tSFE and lSFE, respectively). Materials and methods Patients included in a parallel-arm randomized trial comparatively evaluating tSFE and lSFE were recalled at 3 years post-surgery. Twenty-one and 24 patients in tSFE and lSFE groups, respectively, participated in the follow-up visit. Peri-implant bone support was evaluated as the proportion of the entire implant surface in direct contact with the radiopaque area (totCON%) on 3-year periapical radiographs. The conditions of the marginal peri-implant tissues at 3-year visit were classified as peri-implant health, peri-implant mucositis, or peri-implantitis. Results At 3 years, both groups showed an implant survival rate of 100%. Median totCON% was stable at 3 years, being 100% in both groups (p = 0.124). Peri-implant health and mucositis were diagnosed in 10 (47.6%) and 11 (52.4%) patients, respectively, in the tSFE group, and in 8 (33.3%) and 16 (66.7%) subjects, respectively, in the lSFE group (p = 0.502). Conclusions At 3 years following surgery, implants placed concomitantly with tSFE and lSFE fully maintain peri-implant bone support. Peri-implant mucositis was the most prevalent condition, with a similar prevalence between groups. Clinical relevance. Based on 3-year data on peri-implant bone support and prevalence of peri-implant diseases, the study suggests that tSFE and lSFE represent two equally valid options for the rehabilitation of the posterior maxilla. ID: NCT02415946.

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