Introduction: Isolated duodenal injuries are rare in blunt abdominal trauma. These present a significant challenge for management because of the associated injuries and its difficult anatomical accessibility.
Case presentation: A 20years male presented to the Emergency department following a bike accident sustaining injury over face, chest and abdomen, 6hours after the incident. His vitals were unstable so he was resuscitated and admitted in Intensive Care Unit. He had generalized abdominal tenderness without rigidity. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis was suggestive of hollow viscus perforation. He underwent exploratory laparotomy and primary repair for isolated perforation at fourth part of duodenum. He was discharged on his ninth postoperative day.
Conclusion: Rare injuries following blunt abdominal trauma should be considered and early intervention is necessary.
After renal trauma, surgical treatment is vital, but sometimes there may be loss of function due to fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of autologous omentum flaps on injured renal tissues in a rat model.
A total of 30 Wistar albino rats were included and randomly divided equally into a control group and four intervention groups. Iatrogenic renal injuries were repaired using a surgical technique (primary repair 1 group and primary repair 2 group) or transposition of the autologous omentum (omentum repair 1 group and omentum repair 2 group). Blood samples were taken preoperatively and on the 1st and 7th postoperative days in all groups and on the 18th postoperative day in the control and two intervention groups. All rats were sacrificed on the 7th or 18th day postoperatively, and their right kidneys were taken for histopathological evaluation.
The mean urea level significantly decreased from day 1 to day 7 and from day 1 to day 18 in the omentum repair 2 group (P = 0.005 and P = 0.004, respectively). There were no other significant changes in urea or creatinine levels within the intervention groups (P > 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the urea and creatinine levels and the histological scores (P > 0.05). The primary repair 1 and 2 groups had significantly higher median granulation and inflammation scores in the kidney specimen than the control and omentum repair groups (P < 0.05). The omentum repair 2 group had significantly lower median granulation and inflammation scores in the surrounding tissues than the primary repair 2 group (P < 0.05). The completion score for the healing process in the kidney specimen was significantly higher in the omentum repair groups than in the primary repair groups (P < 0.05). The omentum repair 2 group had significantly lower median granulation and inflammation scores in the surrounding tissues than the primary repair 2 group (P < 0.05). Granulation degree in the kidney specimen was strongly and positively correlated with the inflammation degree (r = 0.824, P < 0.001) and foreign body reaction in the kidney specimen (r = 0.872, P < 0.001) and a strong and negative correlation with the healing process completion score in the kidney (r = − 0.627, P = 0.001). Inflammation degree in the kidney specimen was strongly and positively correlated with the foreign body reaction in the kidney specimen (r = 0.731, P = 0.001) and strongly and negatively correlated with the healing process completion score in the kidney specimen (r = − 0.608, P = 0.002).
Autologous omentum tissue for kidney injury repair attenuated inflammation and granulation. Additionally, the use of omental tissue to facilitate healing of kidney injury may theoretically lead to a more effective healing process and reduced fibrosis and tissue and function loss.
The aim of this study is to compare outcomes of primary retinal detachment (RD) repair in retinoschisis-associated RD (RSRD) and rhegmatogenous RD (RRD).
This is a retrospective observational cohort study. Charts of 2247 consecutive patients operated for RD repair at the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec – Université Laval between 2014 and 2018 were reviewed. Patients with RSRD and RRD were included to compare the visual and anatomical outcomes of both groups.
There were 41 patients (1.8%) with RSRD and 1661 patients (74%) with RRD. RSRD patients had more primary repair failures (n = 9, 22%, vs. n = 166, 10%; p = 0.013). The primary anatomical success rates for pars plana vitrectomy with and without scleral buckle (PPV-SB vs. PPV) as primary repair method were similar in both RSRD patients (n = 11/14, 79% vs. n = 20/25, 80%; p = 0.92) and RRD patients (n = 751/827, 91% vs. n = 641/721, 89%; p = 0.21). At final follow-up, best corrected visual acuity (VA) in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) was 0.30 [0.10, 0.88] and 0.18 [0.10, 0.40] (p = 0.03) in RSRD patients and RRD patients, respectively. Presence of retinoschisis was associated with worse final VA (β 0.082, p < 0.001). Other predictive variables included female sex, macula-off presentation, number of RD quadrants involved, longer symptoms duration, worse baseline VA, and primary repair failure. The greatest predictors were worse baseline VA, primary repair failure, and macula-off status at presentation. Presence of retinoschisis did not significantly increase risk of primary repair failure in multivariable analysis (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.50–4.17; p = 0.49). Symptoms duration was the greatest effect factor associated with for primary repair failure (OR 1.37, 95% CI: 1.12–1.69; p = 0.003).
RSRD is associated with more primary repair failure in univariate analysis, but not in multivariate analysis after adjusting for symptoms duration. It is however associated with worse final VA even after adjusting for primary repair failure. Both PPV and PPV-SB are valid repair methods for RSRD. However, RSRD remains a challenge to treat.
Traumatic duodenal injuries are rare and often challenging to diagnose and treat. Management of these injuries remains controversial and continues to evolve. Here, we performed a review of the literature and guidelines for the diagnosis and management of traumatic duodenal injuries. A common recommendation in more recent literature is primary, tension-free repair of duodenal injuries when possible if surgical repair is necessary. Conversely, if duodenal injuries are unamenable to primary repair, more complex procedures such as Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomy or pancreaticoduodenectomy may be necessary. Regardless of injury grade or type of surgical repair, the literature continues to support wide extraluminal drainage. Over time, the management of complex duodenal injuries has evolved to favor simple primary repair whenever possible. According to recent studies, more complex procedures are associated with higher rates of post-operative complications and should be reserved for severe injuries when primary repair is not possible.
Multiligament injury of the knee usually occurs as a result of high-energy trauma causing tibiofemoral dislocation. These are rare but potentially limb-threatening injuries, frequently involving nerve or arterial damage and often leading to severe complex instability. Management generally favours surgical reconstruction of the affected ligaments, with controversy regarding optimal treatment. We present a severe multiligament knee injury (Schenk classification KD-IV involving both cruciate and both collateral ligaments) in a competitive showjumper. A combined arthroscopic/open technique of single-stage surgical repair and suture augmentation was used, repairing all affected ligaments. The patient made an excellent recovery, returning to work after 12 weeks and riding after 22 weeks. After 5-year follow-up, she has regained her previous level of competition without subsequent injury. Multiligament repair with suture augmentation is a viable approach to the management of knee dislocation injuries. We propose that this could provide superior outcomes to traditional reconstruction techniques using autograft or synthetic reconstruction.
We experienced a case of crush injury of the hand for which we performed a flap surgery and treated the necrotic parts placement using cultured allogeneic keratinocytes (Kaloderm<sup>®</sup> ) with good results. The patient was a 31-year-old woman whose left middle finger was caught in a door, causing a crush injury. Although primary repair was performed, a 2 × 2.5-cm-sized necrosis developed, and a V-Y advancement flap was performed after the removal of dead tissues. However, a 1 × 2-cm-sized partial necrosis occurred and was treated using Kaloderm <sup>®</sup> . After the use of Kaloderm<sup>®</sup> , the patient’s wound was healed, and no complications, except for mild pain, were observed for 1 year after the surgery. If a necrotic site appears after flap placement of fingertip, its treatment is difficult. If used well, Kaloderm<sup>®</sup> may be a good option for necrosis of the fingertips and other areas that are difficult to cure.
Hernia is defined as protrusion of a viscus or its part from the wall covering it and in some rare cases due to increased intercostal space there is spontaneous herniation of pleura and lung also known as extrathoracic lung hernia. A 48 year gentleman was admitted in our centre for chest wall swelling which has developed spontaneously 1 year back, painless, with cough impulse, further investigations like chest x-ray revealed nothing , subsequently CT thorax showed intercostal pleural hernia. He underwent surgery which diagnosed it as a case of intercostal pleural hernia having defect between 8th and 9th rib. Subsequently primary repair of defect was done with placement of monofilament mesh over it and then approximation of intercostal space was done with monofilament suture placed over 8th and 9th ribs. Post operatively patient had no complications and no recurrence of hernia. Spontaneous pleural herniation is a usually caused by coughing, heavy weight lifting, weakness of thoracic muscles by smoking, obesity etc. Ideal management is to treat the aetiology along with repair of the defect to prevent recurrence. In the present case the hernia developed after a bout of cough due to increased intercostal space between 8th and 9th ribs and also due to obesity leading to weak musculature. Intercostal pleural hernia repair can be achieved by primary repair of defect but it is advisable to use synthetic materials such as knitted monofilament polypropylene (Marlex) mesh to provide addition support to prevent recurrence.