extracellular polysaccharide
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Baopeng Yang ◽  
Yujun Jiang ◽  
Yongxin Jin ◽  
Fang Bai ◽  
Zhihui Cheng ◽  

Polymyxins are considered as the last resort antibiotics to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram negative pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes various infections in humans. Proteins involved in lipopolysaccharide modification and maintaining inner and outer membrane integrities have been found to contribute to the bacterial resistance to polymyxins. Oligoribonuclease (Orn) is an exonuclease that regulates the homeostasis of intracellular (3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), thereby regulating the production of extracellular polysaccharide in P. aeruginosa . Previously, we demonstrated that Orn affects the bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolone, β-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics. In this study, we found that mutation of orn increased the bacterial survival following polymyxin B treatment in a wild type P. aeruginosa strain PA14. Overexpression of c-di-GMP degradation enzymes in the orn mutant reduced the bacterial survival. By using a fluorescence labeled polymyxin B, we found that mutation of orn increased the bacterial surface bound polymyxin B. Deletion of the Pel synthesis genes or treatment with a Pel hydrolase reduced the surface bound polymyxin B and bacterial survival. We further demonstrated that Pel binds to extracellular DNA (eDNA), which traps polymyxin B and thus protects the bacterial cells. Collectively, our results revealed a novel defense mechanism against polymyxin in P. aeruginosa .

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12511
Li Luo ◽  
Jiaxi Zhou ◽  
Zhongshun Xu ◽  
Jingqiang Guan ◽  
Yingming Gao ◽  

Background Cordyceps militaris is a fungus that parasitizes insects. Compounds from C. militaris are valuable in medicine and functional food. There are many kinds of bacteria in the natural sclerotia of C. militaris. However, the community structure of microorganisms in samples from different places may be different, and their corresponding ecological functions require experimental verification. Methods We used high-throughput sequencing technology to analyze bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in sclerotia of three samples of C. militaris from Liaoning Province, China. We isolated, identified and verified the function of culturable bacterial strains from the sclerotia. Results Pseudomonas, Pedobacter, Sphingobacterium, and Serratia were the dominant bacterial genera in the sclerotia. And function prediction showed that Pseudomonas and Pedobacter could be heterotrophic, Sphingobacterium could decompose urea, and Serratia could reduce nitrate. Two strains of bacteria isolated from the sclerotia of C. militaris, N-2 and N-26, were identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas baetica, respectively, based on culture and biochemical characteristics. When these isolated strains were co-cultured with C. militaris, the mycelium biomass and mycelium pellet diameter decreased, and the content of extracellular polysaccharide increased. Strain N-26 decreased the cordycepin content in C. militaris. Conclusions Bacteria in sclerotia have an important effect on the growth of C. militaris and the production of its metabolites.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 12699
Shiwei Wang ◽  
Yuqi Feng ◽  
Xiaofeng Han ◽  
Xinyu Cai ◽  
Liu Yang ◽  

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important opportunistic pathogen, is capable of producing various virulence factors and forming biofilm that are regulated by quorum sensing (QS). It is known that targeting virulence factor production and biofilm formation instead of exerting selective pressure on growth such as conventional antibiotics can reduce multidrug resistance in bacteria. Therefore, many quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSIs) have been developed to prevent or treat this bacterial infection. In this study, wogonin, as an active ingredient from Agrimonia pilosa, was found to be able to inhibit QS system of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Wogonin downregulated the expression of QS-related genes and reduced the production of many virulence factors, such as elastase, pyocyanin, and proteolytic enzyme. In addition, wogonin decreased the extracellular polysaccharide synthesis and inhibited twitching, swimming, and swarming motilities and biofilm formation. The attenuation of pathogenicity in P. aeruginosa PAO1 by wogonin application was further validated in vivo by cabbage infection and fruit fly and nematode survival experiments. Further molecular docking analysis, pathogenicity examination of various QS-related mutants, and PQS signal molecule detection revealed that wogonin could interfere with PQS signal molecular synthesis by affecting pqsA and pqsR. Taken together, the results indicated that wogonin might be used as an anti-QS candidate drug to attenuate the infection caused by P. aeruginosa.

Stresses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 266-276
Salme Timmusk ◽  
Tiiu Teder ◽  
Lawrence Behers

We compared the ability of two bacterial strains, Paenibacillus polymyxa A26 and P. polymyxa A26Sfp, for biodegradation of naphthalene (NAP). The studies were performed under simulated laboratory conditions, in liquid medium and soil with different carbon sources, pH and salt contents. Changes in the luminescence inhibition of Aliivibrio fischeri, as an indicator of the baseline toxicity, were observed in degradation mixtures during 7 days of incubation. While both strains expressed the best growth and NAP degradation ability in the minimal salt medium containing sucrose and 5% NaCl at pH 7 and 8, the mutant strain remained effective even under extreme conditions. A26Sfp was found to be an efficient and potentially industrially important polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation strain. Its extracellular polysaccharide production is 30%, and glucan production is twice that of the wild type A 26. The surface tension reduction ability was ascertained as 25–30% increased emulsification ability.

Kaila Petronila Medina-Alarcón ◽  
Iara Pengo Tobias da Silva ◽  
Giovana Garcia Ferin ◽  
Marcelo A. Pereira-da-Silva ◽  
Caroline Maria Marcos ◽  

Co-infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, present in 20% in Latin America, is a public health problem due to a lack of adequate diagnosis. These microorganisms are capable of forming biofilms, mainly in immunocompromised patients, which can lead to death due to the lack of effective treatment for both diseases. The present research aims to show for the first time the formation of mixed biofilms of M. tuberculosis and P. brasiliensis (Pb18) in vitro, as well as to evaluate the action of 3’hydroxychalcone (3’chalc) -loaded nanoemulsion (NE) (NE3’chalc) against monospecies and mixed biofilms, the formation of mixed biofilms of M. tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294), 40Rv (clinical strains) and P. brasiliensis (Pb18) (ATCC 32069), and the first condition of formation (H37Rv +Pb18) and (40Rv + Pb18) and second condition of formation (Pb18 + H37Rv) with 45 days of total formation time under both conditions. The results of mixed biofilms (H37Rv + Pb18) and (40Rv + Pb18), showed an organized network of M. tuberculosis bacilli in which P. brasiliensis yeasts are connected with a highly extracellular polysaccharide matrix. The (Pb18 + H37Rv) showed a dense biofilm with an apparent predominance of P. brasiliensis and fragments of M. tuberculosis. PCR assays confirmed the presence of the microorganisms involved in this formation. The characterization of NE and NE3’chalc displayed sizes from 145.00 ± 1.05 and 151.25 ± 0.60, a polydispersity index (PDI) from 0.20± 0.01 to 0.16± 0.01, and zeta potential -58.20 ± 0.92 mV and -56.10 ± 0.71 mV, respectively. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) results showed lamellar structures characteristic of NE. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 3’hidroxychalcone (3’chalc) range from 0.97- 7.8 µg/mL and NE3’chalc from 0.24 - 3.9 µg/mL improved the antibacterial activity when compared with 3’chalc-free, no cytotoxicity. Antibiofilm assays proved the efficacy of 3’chalc-free incorporation in NE. These findings contribute to a greater understanding of the formation of M. tuberculosis and P. brasiliensis in the mixed biofilm. In addition, the findings present a new possible NE3’chalc treatment alternative for the mixed biofilms of these microorganisms, with a high degree of relevance due to the lack of other treatments for these comorbidities.

2021 ◽  
James P. Pirruccello ◽  
Seung Hoan Choi ◽  
Mark D. Chaffin ◽  
Mahan Nekoui ◽  
Elizabeth L. Chou ◽  

As the largest conduit vessel, the aorta is responsible for the conversion of phasic systolic inflow from ventricular ejection into more continuous blood delivery to peripheral arteries. Distension during systole and recoil during diastole conserves ventricular energy and is enabled by the specialized composition of the aortic extracellular matrix. Aortic distensibility decreases with age and prematurely in vascular disease. To discover genetic determinants of aortic distensibility we trained a deep learning model to quantify aortic size throughout the cardiac cycle and calculate aortic distensibility and aortic strain in 42,342 participants in the UK Biobank with available cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. In up to 40,028 participants with genetic data, common variant analysis identified 12 and 26 loci for ascending and 11 and 21 loci for descending aortic distensibility and strain, respectively. Of the newly identified loci, 22 were specific to strain or distensibility and were not identified in a thoracic aortic diameter GWAS within the same samples. Loci associated with both aortic diameter and aortic strain or distensibility demonstrated a consistent, inverse directionality. Transcriptome-wide analyses, rare-variant burden tests, and analyses of gene expression in single nucleus RNA sequencing of human aorta were performed to prioritize genes at individual loci. Loci highlighted multiple genes involved in elastogenesis, matrix degradation, and extracellular polysaccharide generation. Characterization of the genetic determinants of aortic function may provide novel targets for medical intervention in aortic disease.

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