anticancer treatment
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Anna V. Milton ◽  
David B. Konrad

Abstract Mutation-selective drugs constitute a great advancement in personalized anticancer treatment with increased quality of life and overall survival in cancers. However, the high adaptability and evasiveness of cancers can lead to disease progression and the development of drug resistance, which cause recurrence and metastasis. A common characteristic in advanced neoplastic cancers is the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is strongly interconnected with H2O2 signaling, increased motility and invasiveness. H2O2 relays its signal through the installation of oxidative posttranslational modifications on cysteines. The increased H2O2 levels that are associated with an EMT confer a heightened sensitivity towards the induction of ferroptosis as a recently discovered vulnerability.

Mohamed Haider ◽  
Amr El Sherbeny ◽  
Valeria Pittalà ◽  
Antonino N. Fallica ◽  
Maha Ali Alghamdi ◽  

Lung cancer (LC) is one of the leading causes of cancer occurrence and mortality worldwide. Treatment of patients with advanced and metastatic LC presents a significant challenge as malignant cells use different mechanisms to resist chemotherapy. Drug resistance (DR) is a complex process that occurs due to a variety of genetic and acquired factors. Identifying the mechanisms underlying DR in LC patients and possible therapeutic alternatives for more efficient therapy is a central goal of LC research. Advances in nanotechnology resulted in the development of targeted and multifunctional nanoscale drug constructs. The possible modulation of the components of nanomedicine, their surface functionalization, and encapsulation of various active therapeutics provide promising tools to bypass crucial biological barriers. These attributes enhance the delivery of multiple therapeutic agents directly to the tumor microenvironment (TME), resulting in reversal of LC resistance to anticancer treatment. This review provides a broad framework for understanding the different molecular mechanisms of DR in lung cancer; presents novel nanomedicine therapeutics aimed to improve the efficacy of treatment of various forms of resistant LC; outlines current challenges in using nanotechnology for reversing DR; and discusses the future directions for clinical application of nanomedicine in management of LC resistance.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Antonina Klimenko ◽  
Elvira E. Rodina ◽  
Denis Silachev ◽  
Maria Begun ◽  
Valentina A. Babenko ◽  

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) represents a powerful avenue for anticancer treatment. PDT relies on the use of photosensitizers—compounds accumulating in the tumor and converted from benign to cytotoxic upon targeted photoactivation. We here describe (3S,4S)-14-Ethyl-9-(hydroxymethyl)-4,8,13,18-tetramethyl-20-oxo-3-phorbinepropanoic acid (ETPA) as a major metabolite of the North Pacific brittle stars Ophiura sarsii. As a chlorin, ETPA efficiently produces singlet oxygen upon red-light photoactivation and exerts powerful sub-micromolar phototoxicity against a panel of cancer cell lines in vitro. In a mouse model of glioblastoma, intravenous ETPA injection combined with targeted red laser irradiation induced strong necrotic ablation of the brain tumor. Along with the straightforward ETPA purification protocol and abundance of O. sarsii, these studies pave the way for the development of ETPA as a novel natural product-based photodynamic therapeutic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Anastasia A. Zabolotneva ◽  
Olga P. Shatova ◽  
Anastasia A. Sadova ◽  
Aleksandr V. Shestopalov ◽  
Sergei A. Roumiantsev

The investigation of alkylresorcinols has drawn an increasing interest recently. Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are natural chemical compounds synthesized by bacteria, fungi, sponges, and higher plants, possessing a lipophilic polyphenol structures and a myriad of biological properties. Human takes ARs as a component of a whole grain diet (from whole grain rye, wheat, and barley products), and thus, alkylresorcinols are frequently used as whole grain intake markers. Besides, ARs are considered as promising bioregulators of metabolic and immune processes, as well as adjuvant therapeutic agents for antimicrobial and anticancer treatment. In this review, we attempted to systematize the accumulated information concerning ARs origin, metabolism, biological properties, and their effect on human health.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 226
Konstantinos Arvanitakis ◽  
Triantafyllia Koletsa ◽  
Ioannis Mitroulis ◽  
Georgios Germanidis

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) constitutes a major health burden globally, and it is caused by intrinsic genetic mutations acting in concert with a multitude of epigenetic and extrinsic risk factors. Cancer induces myelopoiesis in the bone marrow, as well as the mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which reside in the spleen. Monocytes produced in the bone marrow and the spleen further infiltrate tumors, where they differentiate into tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). The relationship between chronic inflammation and hepatocarcinogenesis has been thoroughly investigated over the past decade; however, several aspects of the role of TAMs in HCC development are yet to be determined. In response to certain stimuli and signaling, monocytes differentiate into macrophages with antitumor properties, which are classified as M1-like. On the other hand, under different stimuli and signaling, the polarization of macrophages shifts towards an M2-like phenotype with a tumor promoting capacity. M2-like macrophages drive tumor growth both directly and indirectly, via the suppression of cytotoxic cell populations, including CD8+ T cells and NK cells. The tumor microenvironment affects the response to immunotherapies. Therefore, an enhanced understanding of its immunobiology is essential for the development of next-generation immunotherapies. The utilization of various monocyte-centered anticancer treatment modalities has been under clinical investigation, selectively targeting and modulating the processes of monocyte recruitment, activation and migration. This review summarizes the current evidence on the role of TAMs in HCC pathogenesis and progression, as well as in their potential involvement in tumor therapy, shedding light on emerging anticancer treatment methods targeting monocytes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 345-352
Sang-Tae KIM ◽  
Sang-Hun OH ◽  
Jongsun PARK

Diarthron linifolium Turcz. is an annual herb usually found in sandy soil or limestone areas. Plants in the genus Diarthron are known to have toxic chemicals that may, however, be potentially useful as an anticancer treatment. Diarthron linifolium is a unique species among the species of the genus distributed in Korea. Here, we determine the genetic variation of D. linifolium collected in Korea with a full chloroplast genome and investigate its evolutionary status by means of a phylogenetic analysis. The chloroplast genome of Korean D. linifolium has a total length of 172,644 bp with four subregions; 86,158 bp of large single copy and 2,858 bp of small single copy (SSC) regions are separated by 41,814 bp of inverted repeat (IR) regions. We found that the SSC region of D. linifolium is considerably short but that IRs are relatively long in comparison with other chloroplast genomes. Various simple sequence repeats were identified, and our nucleotide diversity analysis suggested potential marker regions near ndhF. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that D. linifolium from Korea is a sister to the group of Daphne species.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 295-306
Elena Massa ◽  
Clelia Donisi ◽  
Nicole Liscia ◽  
Clelia Madeddu ◽  
Valentino Impera ◽  

Background: Depression is a common psychiatric problem in the elderly and oncology patients. In elderly people with cancer, depression has a peculiar phenomenology. It has a significant impact on the quality of life. Moreover, it is associated with poor adherence to treatments, increased risk of suicide, and mortality. Nevertheless, the topic of depression in elderly people with cancer remains unexplored. Objective: The main goal of this article is to review the literature from the past 20 years on the relationships between depression, cancer, and aging. Methods: The methods followed the Prisma model for eligibility of studies. The articles in which the keywords “depression”, “cancer”, “ elderly, aging, or geriatric” were present, either in the text or in the abstract, were selected. 8.056 articles, by matching the keywords “depression and elderly and cancer,” were identified. Only 532 papers met the eligibility criteria of search limits and selection process. Out of 532 papers, 467 were considered irrelevant, leaving 65 relevant studies. Out of 65 suitable studies, 39 (60.0%) met our quality criteria and were included. Results: The risk factors associated with depression in elderly people with cancer can be divided into 4 groups: 1) tumor-related; 2) anticancer treatment-related; 3) patients-related; 4) number and type of comorbidity. The main obstacles in diagnosing depression in elderly patients with cancer are the overlap of the symptoms of cancer and side effects of treatment with the symptoms of depression but also the different ways of reporting depressive symptoms of elderly people and the different clinical types of depression. There is a lack of data regarding validated scales to assess depression in geriatric patients with cancer. Any mental illness, specifically co-occurring anxiety and depression, increases the risk of diagnosis delay and anticancer treatment adherence. Cancer and the diagnosis of mental disorders prior to cancer diagnosis correlate with an increased risk for suicide. A non-pharmacological therapeutic approach, pharmacological treatment and/or a combination of both can be used to treat elderly patients with cancer, but a detailed analysis of comorbidities and the assessment of polypharmacy is mandatory in order to avoid potential side-effects and interactions between antidepressants and the other drugs taken by the patients. Conclusion: Future research should be conducted with the aim of developing a modified and adapted assessment method for the diagnosis and treatment of depression in elderly people with cancer in order to improve their clinical outcomes and quality of life.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (4) ◽  
pp. 43-47
M. Kiselevsky ◽  
S. Sitdikova ◽  
A. Petkevich

Relevance: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) alone has been shown to induce tumor regression and approved to treat metastatic renal cancer and melanoma. Checkpoint inhibitors realize their therapeutic effect through stimulation of immune system effectors; one of such mechanisms is the enhancement of IL-2 production by T-helpers. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of IL-2 administration as a component of combined immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors and to suggest the mechanisms by which IL-2 can reduce the frequency and severity of side effects during checkpoint inhibitor therapy without reducing their effectiveness. Methods: The literature search was performed in the PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases by the keywords in article titles: “immunotherapy,” “checkpoint inhibitors,” “interleukin-2,” and “combination therapy” for the period 2011-2021. A total of 248 relevant articles were found. The review’s inclusion criteria were: clinical cases; data of clinical research methods; data on humans/body fluids from humans; literature reviews and meta-analyses. The selected 24 articles met the search criteria and were included in the review. Results: The combined action of IL-2 and сheckpoint inhibitors increases the proliferative and killer activity of the antitumor immunity effectors compared to the action of the same drugs in mono-mode at a level exceeding the summation effect. Conclusion: The combination of IL-2 and сheckpoint inhibitors can increase the effectiveness of anticancer treatment and is a promising area of immunotherapy

Noé Rodríguez-Barajas ◽  
Luis Miguel Anaya-Esparza ◽  
Zuami Villagrán-de la Mora ◽  
Jorge Alberto Sánchez-Burgos ◽  
Alejandro Pérez-Larios

Abstract: Recently, Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been studied as an alternative to treat cancer diseases under different activation therapies. The aim of this review was to describe the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on some cancer cell lines and their interaction with phototherapies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), photothermal therapy (PTT), sonodynamic therapy (SDT), and ultraviolet therapy (UV) for anticancer treatment. The use of TiO2 combined with PDT, PTT, SDT, or UV has shown a remarkable capacity to enhance the killing of cancer cells through reactive oxygen species formation. Thus, the combination of TiO2 and activation therapies exhibited great potential and could be a viable anticancer treatment strategy. However, more studies on phototherapies in combination with TiO2 and their effects at under different experimental conditions (TiO2 concentration, type of cancer cells, and intensity and frequency of therapies) are necessary to guarantee the safe use of this kind of therapy.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Lixia Chen ◽  
Yang Zhang ◽  
Xinming Zhang ◽  
Ruijuan Lv ◽  
Rongtian Sheng ◽  

Anticancer treatment is largely affected by the hypoxic tumor microenvironment (TME), which causes the resistance of the tumor to radiotherapy. Combining radiosensitizer compounds and O2 self-enriched moieties is an emerging strategy in hypoxic-tumor treatments. Herein, we engineered GdW10@PDA-CAT (K3Na4H2GdW10O36·2H2O, GdW10, polydopamine, PDA, catalase, CAT) composites as a radiosensitizer for the TME-manipulated enhancement of radiotherapy. In the composites, Gd (Z = 64) and W (Z = 74), as the high Z elements, make X-ray gather in tumor cells, thereby enhancing DNA damage induced by radiation. CAT can convert H2O2 to O2 and H2O to enhance the X-ray effect under hypoxic TME. CAT and PDA modification enhances the biocompatibility of the composites. Our results showed that GdW10@PDA-CAT composites increased the efficiency of radiotherapy in HT29 cells in culture. This polyoxometalates and O2 self-supplement composites provide a promising radiosensitizer for the radiotherapy field.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document