drug resistant bacteria
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Qi Xie ◽  
Yin Wang ◽  
Mengmeng Zhang ◽  
Shujia Wu ◽  
Wei Wei ◽  

Human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1) is a promising antibiotic candidate, but its clinical application has been hampered by the difficulty of mass production and an inadequate understanding of its bactericidal mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant protein expression combined with ultrafiltration may be a simple and cost-effective solution to HNP-1 production.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Tamara Matthyssen ◽  
Wenyi Li ◽  
James A. Holden ◽  
Jason C. Lenzo ◽  
Sara Hadjigol ◽  

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found in nearly all living organisms, show broad spectrum antibacterial activity, and can modulate the immune system. Furthermore, they have a very low level of resistance induction in bacteria, which makes them an ideal target for drug development and for targeting multi-drug resistant bacteria ‘Superbugs’. Despite this promise, AMP therapeutic use is hampered as typically they are toxic to mammalian cells, less active under physiological conditions and are susceptible to proteolytic degradation. Research has focused on addressing these limitations by modifying natural AMP sequences by including e.g., d-amino acids and N-terminal and amino acid side chain modifications to alter structure, hydrophobicity, amphipathicity, and charge of the AMP to improve antimicrobial activity and specificity and at the same time reduce mammalian cell toxicity. Recently, multimerisation (dimers, oligomer conjugates, dendrimers, polymers and self-assembly) of natural and modified AMPs has further been used to address these limitations and has created compounds that have improved activity and biocompatibility compared to their linear counterparts. This review investigates how modifying and multimerising AMPs impacts their activity against bacteria in planktonic and biofilm states of growth.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Minghao Wu ◽  
Shipeng He ◽  
Hua Tang ◽  
Honggang Hu ◽  
Yejiao Shi

The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria and the lack of novel antibiotics to combat them have led to the revival of polymyxin B, a previously abandoned antibiotic due to its potential nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. To facilitate its widely clinical applications, increasing effort has been devoted to molecularly engineer polymyxin B for the targeted imaging and effective treatment of bacterial infections. Herein, the molecular engineering strategies will be summarized in this mini review, with selected recent advances for illustration. Perspective of the challenges and trends in this exciting and eagerly anticipated research area will also be provided in the end. We hope this mini review will inspire researchers from diverse fields to bring forward the next wave of exploiting molecular engineering approaches to propel the “old” polymyxin B to “new” clinical significance in combating bacterial infections.

2022 ◽  
Daniele Rossetto ◽  
Sheref Mansy ◽  
Maria Jordan ◽  
Kenneth Roos ◽  

Infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria, particularly gram-negative organisms, are increasingly difficult to treat using antibiotics. A potential alternative is phage therapy, in which phages infect and lyse the bacterial host. However, phage therapy poses serious drawbacks and safety concerns, such as the risk of genetic transduction of antibiotic resistance genes, inconsistent pharmacokinetics, and unknown evolutionary potential. In contrast, metallic nanoparticles possess precise, tunable properties, including efficient conversion of electronic excitation into heat. In this work, we demonstrate that engineered phage-nanomaterial conjugates that target the gram-negative pathogen P. aeruginosa, are highly effective as a treatment of infected wounds in mice. Photothermal heating, performed as a single treatment (15 min) or as two treatments on consecutive days, rapidly reduced the bacterial load and released Zn2+ to promote wound healing. The phage-nanomaterial treatment was significantly more effective than systemic fluoroquinolone antibiotics in reducing both bacterial load and wound size, and was notably effective against a P. aeruginosa strain resistant to polymyxins, a last-line antibiotic therapy. Unlike these antibiotics, the phage-nanomaterial showed no detectable toxicity or systemic effects in mice, consistent with the short duration and localized nature of phage-nanomaterial treatment. Our results demonstrate that phage therapy controlled by inorganic nanomaterials can be a safe and effective antimicrobial strategy in vivo.

2022 ◽  
Xuan Wang ◽  
Lin Qiu ◽  
Cheng Wang ◽  
Zihan Gao ◽  
Shuwen Zhou ◽  

Bacterial infection of the wounds delays the healing process, increases the risk of becoming chronic trauma associated with pain and complications, and offers a breeding ground for drug-resistant bacteria. A...

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