Metallic Nanoparticles
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Iria Rujido-Santos ◽  
Paloma Herbello-Hermelo ◽  
María Carmen Barciela-Alonso ◽  
Pilar Bermejo-Barrera ◽  
Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro

Metals, metallic compounds, and, recently, metallic nanoparticles appear in textiles due to impurities from raw materials, contamination during the manufacturing process, and/or their deliberate addition. However, the presence of lead, cadmium, chromium (VI), arsenic, mercury, and dioctyltin in textile products is regulated in Europe (Regulation 1907/2006). Metal determination in fabrics was performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The ICP-MS procedure has been successfully validated; relative standard deviations were up to 3% and analytical recoveries were within the 90–107% range. The developed method was applied to several commercial textiles, and special attention has been focused on textiles with nanofinishing (fabrics prepared with metallic nanoparticles for providing certain functionalities). Arsenic content (in textile T4) and lead content (in subsamples T1-1, T1-2, and T3-3) were found to exceed the maximum limits established by the European Regulation 1907/2006. Although impregnation of yarns with mercury compounds is not allowed, mercury was quantified in fabrics T1-2, T5, and T6. Further speciation studies for determining hexavalent chromium species in sample T9 are necessary (hexavalent chromium is the only species of chromium regulated). Some textile products commercialised in Europe included in this study do not comply with European regulation 1907/2006.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e40111125141
Laura Cassol Mohr Celuppi ◽  
Ana Paula Capelezzo ◽  
Leticia Bavaresco Cima ◽  
Rubieli Carla Frezza Zeferino ◽  
Micheli Zanetti ◽  

The development of new antimicrobial polymeric materials is in prominence due to its versatility of applications, especially for the manufacture of active packaging food. Cellulose acetate is an example of polymeric material used to this purpose, due to its characteristics of biodegradability and easy processing, in addition its natural origin and no toxicity. Geranyl acetate is an ester derived from geraniol, which has good antimicrobial properties and good thermal stability, which makes it interesting to be applied as an antimicrobial agent, avoiding the trivial and often problematic metallic nanoparticles and also volatile essential oils. In this work, antibacterial and antifungal cellulose acetate films were obtained through the incorporation of geranyl acetate ester (in concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0% v/v), by using the casting technique. This new material was tested against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Results showed that it is possible to obtain antibacterial and antifungal cellulose acetate films with the incorporation of geranyl acetate ester, with excellent antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and good antifungal activity.

Adam Laycock ◽  
Nathaniel J. Clark ◽  
Robert Clough ◽  
Rachel Smith ◽  
Richard D. Handy

A systematic review of the use of single particle ICP-MS to analyse engineered nanomaterials in biological samples has highlighted that efforts have focused on a select few compositions and there is a lack of information for some important tissues.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (2) ◽  
pp. 443-447
Kaviarasu Balakrishnan ◽  
Sivabalan Arumugam ◽  
Dhineshkumar Ezhumalai ◽  
Ramasamy Karthikeyan ◽  
G.N. Magesan

In present work, multi-metallic nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method in a controlled environment by using silver, lead, mercury, egg shell powder (contains 1% calcium phosphate, 1% magnesium carbonate, 94% calcium carbonate and 4% organic matter), potassium nitrate, potassium alum and extracts of citrus lemon by following the process defined in Traditional Indian Medicine, Siddha System of Medicine. The morphology, compositions and structure of the product were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Highly uniform spherical multi-metallic nanoparticle was subjected for the antibacterial activities. The particles were agglomerated as observed by SEM micrographs. The particles were homogeneous, spherical in shape and loosely agglomerated as seen by TEM pictures. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized multi-metallic nanoparticles against B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeuroginosa was demonstrated using the zone of inhibition technique. The synthesized multi-metallic nanoparticle can find plausible biological applications.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 146
Daria V. Mamonova ◽  
Anna A. Vasileva ◽  
Yuri V. Petrov ◽  
Alexandra V. Koroleva ◽  
Denis V. Danilov ◽  

Multimetallic plasmonic systems usually have distinct advantages over monometallic nanoparticles due to the peculiarity of the electronic structure appearing in advanced functionality systems, which is of great importance in a variety of applications including catalysis and sensing. Despite several reported techniques, the controllable synthesis of multimetallic plasmonic nanoparticles in soft conditions is still a challenge. Here, mono-, bi- and tri-metallic nanoparticles were successfully obtained as a result of a single step laser-induced deposition approach from monometallic commercially available precursors. The process of nanoparticles formation is starting with photodecomposition of the metal precursor resulting in nucleation and the following growth of the metal phase. The deposited nanoparticles were studied comprehensively with various experimental techniques such as SEM, TEM, EDX, XPS, and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The size of monometallic nanoparticles is strongly dependent on the type of metal: 140–200 nm for Au, 40–60 nm for Ag, 2–3 nm for Pt. Bi- and trimetallic nanoparticles were core-shell structures representing monometallic crystallites surrounded by an alloy of respective metals. The formation of an alloy phase took place between monometallic nanocrystallites of different metals in course of their growth and agglomeration stage.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 291
Beata Tim ◽  
Paulina Błaszkiewicz ◽  
Michał Kotkowiak

Robust and versatile strategies for the development of functional nanostructured materials often focus on assemblies of metallic nanoparticles. Research interest in such assemblies arises due to their potential applications in the fields of photonics and sensing. Metallic nanoparticles have received considerable recent attention due to their connection to the widely studied phenomenon of localized surface plasmon resonance. For instance, plasmonic hot spots can be observed within their assemblies. A useful form of spectroscopy is based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This phenomenon is a commonly used in sensing techniques, and it works using the principle that scattered inelastic light can be greatly enhanced at a surface. However, further research is required to enable improvements to the SERS techniques. For example, one question that remains open is how to design uniform, highly reproducible, and efficiently enhancing substrates of metallic nanoparticles with high structural precision. In this review, a general overview on nanoparticle functionalization and the impact on nanoparticle assembly is provided, alongside an examination of their applications in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

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