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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 331
Author(s):  
Bogna Gryszczyńska ◽  
Magdalena Budzyń ◽  
Joanna Grupińska ◽  
Magdalena Paulina Kasprzak ◽  
Agnieszka Gryszczyńska

The COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences, including social isolation, movement restrictions and work instability have altered many people’s nutritional behaviors and daily lifestyle. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on selected eating habits, physical activity and daily lifestyle changes of Polish adults (n = 145). The self-designed and anonymous questionnaire was available online from the 1 May 2021 to the 15 May 2021. In general, 60% of respondents declared that the COVID-19 pandemic did not affect their dietary habits, whereas 26% of surveyed individuals answered in the affirmative. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on changing dietary habits was differentiated by age (Pearson’s χ2 = 12.604; p = 0.0134). The number of meals consumed by respondents per day differed across gender groups (Pearson’s χ2 = 9.653; df = 4; p = 0.0466). An increase in body weight during the COVID-19 pandemic was reported by 43% of women and 7.6% of surveyed men. Additionally, hybrid working women declared most often an increase in body mass independent of age, education level and living place. Moreover, the majority of respondents who reported the effect of the pandemic on changing dietary habits also declared more frequent sweets consumption. The study revealed that respondents who stated more frequent sweets consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely associated with an increase in body mass (OR = 6.75, 95% CI, 6.75–91.25). No increase in the consumption of vitamin D, C and Mg supplements and pickled products was found.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Aswir Abd Rashed ◽  
Fatin Saparuddin ◽  
Devi-Nair Gunasegavan Rathi ◽  
Nur Najihah Mohd Nasir ◽  
Ezarul Faradianna Lokman

Simple lifestyle changes can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition to maintaining a physically active way of life, the diet has become one of the bases in managing TD2M. Due to many studies linking the ability of resistant starch (RS) to a substantial role in enhancing the nutritional quality of food and disease prevention, the challenge of incorporating RS into the diet and increasing its intake remains. Therefore, we conducted this review to assess the potential benefits of RS on metabolic biomarkers in pre-diabetes and diabetes adults based on available intervention studies over the last decade. Based on the conducted review, we observed that RS intake correlates directly to minimize possible effects through different mechanisms for better control of pre-diabetic and diabetic conditions. In most studies, significant changes were evident in the postprandial glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (iAUC). Comparative evaluation of RS consumption and control groups also showed differences with inflammatory markers such as TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and E-selectin. Only RS2 and RS3 were extensively investigated and widely reported among the five reported RS types. However, a proper comparison and conclusion are deemed inappropriate considering the variations observed with the study duration, sample size, subjects and their metabolic conditions, intervention doses, and the intervention base products. In conclusion, this result provides interesting insights into the potential use of RS as part of a sustainable diet in diabetes management and should be further explored in terms of the mechanism involved.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 25-26
Author(s):  
Devangi Patel ◽  
Kayleigh Beaveridge ◽  
Zoe O'Neill ◽  
Ilka Lowensteyn ◽  
Mohammed Kaouache ◽  
...  

The pandemic has highlighted the need for accessible and effective health promotion as Canadians are isolated from their communities during social distancing measures. A web-based health promotion program in which participants also received individualized email-based health coaching from medical students has been available during the pandemic to empower veterans and their family members to engage in healthy lifestyle change. Health coaches’ email interactions with participants used techniques of motivational interviewing, including an empathetic style, statements of affirmation, and reflections. Open-ended questions were useful in gaining insight into the participant’s current lifestyle, including habits, challenges, and coping strategies. As services have transitioned online and individuals have become more isolated, the connection formed between online health coaches and individuals participating in the health promotion program became crucial in countering the mental and physical health repercussions of the pandemic. In a preliminary analysis, we show that web-based health promotion with health coaching, for Canadian Veterans and their families, leads to significant weight loss, increased activity and improvement in wellbeing metrics such as sleep and stress. The medical students acting as health coaches were able to gain a deeper understanding of the challenges involved in behaviour change, something that is seldom covered in detail in the medical school curricula. Medical students were also able to practice their motivational counseling skills surrounding lifestyle changes. Given the lack of available evidence for web-based health promotion that targets veterans and their families, these preliminary results appear promising, with longer-term follow-up planned for the next two years.


BioMed ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 37-49
Author(s):  
Amaju Ikomi ◽  
Shaheen Mannan

Basildon and Thurrock University Hospital in the East of England region of the United Kingdom (UK) witnessed rapidly increasing numbers of pregnant women with diabetes, causing overburdened specialist clinics, poorer patient experience and worsening clinical outcomes. This prompted the multidisciplinary team’s remodelling of care pathways, launching the General ownership of Diabetes (GooD) Pregnancy Network in 2014. Contrary to the conventional limitation of care to specialist diabetes antenatal clinics, this novel initiative highlights the contemporary necessity to equip and empower all maternity stakeholders to deliver the basic care of gestational diabetes (GDM). It strategically connects a Midwife Tele-Clinic “hub” to Educating Gestational Diabetics Group Sessions (EGGS) and standard antenatal clinics. Patients were key partners, regularly participating in feedback surveys and promoting public awareness by co-producing local newspaper articles that served up their stories as case studies. Furthermore, the EGGS “faculty” includes a former GDM patient whose video testimony has inspired almost 2000 patients and their families, aiming to foster long term healthy lifestyle changes. The final summative evaluation in November 2019 showed the new culture of wider consciousness has shortened the “diagnosis to first consultation” intervals and eliminated overbooked specialist clinics (none since January 2016), without further worsening of clinical outcomes. It also boosted research recruitment and avoided additional running costs to the tune of GBP 66,384 a year.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 20
Author(s):  
Chandani Liyanage

Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown origin (CKDu) has appeared across Sri Lanka’s North Central Province (NCP) since the 1990s as an epidemic, unexplained by conventional associated risk factors. During the past few decades, a large number of studies attempted to determine the unknown etiology of CKDu. Despite these investigations, no concrete conclusions were developed, though a number of contradictory hypotheses emerged. The present ethnographic study was carried out in two endemic areas, labelled as “CKDu hotspots”, and illuminates how curing takes place between biomedicine and traditional cultural practices. Our ethnographic study thoroughly scrutinized three decades of lived experience, lay-perceptions and local discourses on CKDu. We used a qualitative study design with a transcendental phenomenological approach and employed a mixture of ethnographic methods. Data collection techniques included participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Data was analysed by using an interpretive thematic analysis model. Findings revealed that lay people have constructed a popular discourse on CKDu, and we explored their views on the origin, etiology and prevalence of CKDu in their locality over the past few decades. Patients’ narratives revealed that there were currently a number of gaps in service delivery. These were mainly due to distant relationships between healthcare providers and CKDu patients. Lay people in affected communities were marginalized throughout the investigation process to determine the unknown etiology, their involvement marginalized to merely acting as objects for scientific instigation. The affected communities strongly believed that CKDu was a recent phenomenon resulting from the mismanagement of the natural environment due to social and lifestyle changes. These findings highlight local dynamics of healthcare seeking behaviours which demand complementary medicine system, particularly given the number of limitations in the biomedical system. Empirical evidence generated from this study suggests a conceptual shift to an ethno-medical model to address CKDu. Improving cultural competency and communication skills among healthcare providers in public health are crucial in order to apply a “bio-psychosocial perspective” in healthcare delivery system and bridging the gap between hospital and the community.


mSystems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carolin C. M. Schulte ◽  
Vinoy K. Ramachandran ◽  
Antonis Papachristodoulou ◽  
Philip S. Poole

Rhizobia are soil bacteria that induce nodule formation on plant roots and differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. A detailed understanding of this complex symbiosis is essential for advancing ongoing efforts to engineer novel symbioses with cereal crops for sustainable agriculture.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 297
Author(s):  
Ines Perrar ◽  
Ute Alexy ◽  
Nicole Jankovic

The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the habitual lifestyles of children and adolescents, in particular, due to the closure of kindergartens and schools. To investigate the impact of the pandemic on nutrients and food intake of children and adolescents in Germany, we analyzed repeated 3-day weighed dietary records from 108 participants (3–18 years; females: n = 45, males: n = 63) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study. Polynomial mixed-effects regression models were used to identify prospective changes in dietary intake (total energy (TEI), carbohydrates, fat, protein, free sugar, ultra-processed foods, fruits and vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages and juices) before and during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. For the current analysis, we have chosen the first months of the pandemic (March 2020–August 2020), as this was the period with the most restrictions in Germany so far (kindergarten, school and restaurant closures; contact and outdoor activity restrictions). No significant changes in either the selected nutrients or food groups were observed. However, children and adolescents recorded a significantly lower TEI during the pandemic (β = −109.65, p = 0.0062). Results remained significant after the exclusion of participants with under-reported records (β = −95.77, p = 0.0063). While macronutrient intake did not change, descriptive data indicate a non-significant decrease in sugar sweetened beverages and ultra-processed foods intake. We suggest that children and adolescents from high socioeconomic families may have adapted lifestyle changes during the pandemic.


Author(s):  
Amaju Ikomi ◽  
Shaheen Mannan

Basildon and Thurrock University Hospital in the East of England region of the United Kingdom (U.K), witnessed rapidly increasing numbers of pregnant women with diabetes, causing overburdened specialist clinics, poorer patient experience and worsening clinical outcomes. This prompted the multidisciplinary team’s remodelling of care pathways, launching the General ownership of Diabetes (GooD) Pregnancy Network in 2014. Contrary to conventional limitation of care to specialist diabetes antenatal clinics, this novel initiative highlights contemporary necessity to equip and empower all maternity stakeholders to deliver basic care of gestational diabetes (GDM). It strategically connects a Midwife Tele-Clinic “hub” to Educating Gestational diabetics Group Sessions (EGGS) and standard antenatal clinics. Patients were key partners, regularly participating in feedback surveys and promoting public awareness by co-producing local newspaper articles that served up their stories as case studies. Furthermore, the EGGS “faculty” includes a former GDM patient whose video testimony has inspired almost 2000 patients and their families; aiming to foster long term healthy lifestyle changes. Final summative evaluation in November 2019 showed the new culture of wider consciousness has shortened ‘diagnosis to first consultation’ intervals and eliminated overbooked specialist clinics (none since January 2016), without further worsening of clinical outcomes. It also boosted research recruitment and avoided additional running costs to the tune of £66,384 a year.


2022 ◽  
pp. 000992282110703
Author(s):  
Ellen Wagner ◽  
Omar Jamil ◽  
Bethany Hodges

While discussing obesity with pediatric patients and their families can be difficult, it is an essential step toward appropriate weight management. There is paucity of data regarding language preferences when discussing obesity in this population. In this pilot qualitative study, we interviewed 8 parents of patients diagnosed with obesity to identify language and communication preferences for discussing their child’s weight. Interviews were analyzed for emerging themes. Important trends appeared revealing that parents prefer neutral, medical terms discussed at well-child checks or obesity-specific visits. Providers should frame lifestyle changes as positive for all patients and set achievable goals with the help of visual aids. Our analysis uncovered several important communication strategies that can better equip providers to discuss obesity with their pediatric patients. This research may serve as a foundation for larger studies into the topic.


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