organic pollution
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
A. Baaloudj ◽  
P. R. De los Ríos-Escalante ◽  
C. Esse

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 660
Hao Zhan ◽  
Qiang Wu ◽  
Benhua Liu ◽  
Guangya Zhou

Groundwater plays a significant role in domestic use and agricultural irrigation in rural areas of northern China. The untreated wastewater from the chemical plant was directly discharged into a seepage well, resulting in the pollution of groundwater. Assessing characteristics of groundwater organic pollution and identifying evolutionary mechanisms of hydrogeochemistry are beneficial for groundwater protection and sustainable management. Statistical methods (correlation analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA)) combined with hydrogeochemical methods including Piper, Gibbs, Gaillardet, and ions binary diagrams and the chloride alkalinity index were employed to explore hydrogeochemical characteristics and evolutionary mechanisms. The results showed that cations were predominantly located at the Ca2+ end and anions were mostly close to the SO42− and Cl− end. The ion concentrations of groundwater were mainly affected by water–rock interactions. The weathering or dissolution of silicate (i.e., aluminosilicate minerals), evaporite (i.e., halite and gypsum), carbonate minerals (i.e., calcite and dolomite), cation exchange, and anthropogenic activities contribute to the chemical compositions of groundwater. Based on CA and PCA, the dissolution of halide minerals and the use of pesticides and fertilizers were the main factors controlling water chemistry. Additionally, the dissolution of sulfur-bearing minerals and gypsum was the key factor controlling the concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Application of mathematical statistical methods characterized that the exceedance rate of seven organic compounds with high detection rates were as follows: carbon tetrachloride (39.83%) > 1,1,2-trichloroethane (28.81%) > chloroform (10.17%) > trichloroethene (6.78%) > 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (5.93%) > perchloroethylene (5.08%) > trichlorofluoromethane (0.85%). Simultaneously, pollution under the influence of volatilization and diffusion was significantly less than that in the direction of groundwater runoff.

2022 ◽  
Maritza Cardenas ◽  
Leandro Patinoa ◽  
Beatriz Pernia ◽  
Roberto Erazo ◽  
Carlos Munoz ◽  

Wastewater surveillance represents an alternative approach for the diagnosis and early detection of infectious agents of public health importance. This study aimed to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 and other quality markers in oxidation lagoons, estuarine areas and seawater at Guayas and Santa Elena in Ecuador. Sample collections were conducted twice at 42 coastal sites and 2 oxidation lagoons during dry and rainy seasons (2020-2021). Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were evaluated to determine organic pollution. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was conducted to detect SARS-CoV-2. Results showed high levels of Escherichia coli and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in sea-waters and estuaries with salinity levels between 34.2-36.4 PSU and 28.8 degrees celsius -31.3 degrees celsius. High amounts of fecal coliforms were detected and correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 shedding. We recommend to decentralized autonomous governments in developing countries such as Ecuador to implement corrective actions and establish medium-term mechanisms to minimize a potential contamination route.

2022 ◽  
Berhanu Tolessa ◽  
Berhanu Tolessa Amena ◽  
Holm Altenbach ◽  
Getachew Shunki Tibba ◽  
Hirpa G. Lemu

Abstract In a locality wherever intense low process is completed while not appropriate waste management measures, low effluents area unit the principal reason behind organic pollution. Low husk contains caffeine, tannins, and chlorogenic acid, creating it a dangerous exposed husk. The low method has been delivery environmental issues to the environment thanks to the discharge of pollution with a large quantity of organic waste. the target of this work is to research the negative impacts of low husk on the atmosphere to scale back environmental pollution in step with the planet Health Organization, one among the foremost vital problems that enterprises confront as they look for ways to limit their use of the artifact by changing it into value-add products/applications is that the harmful impact of low husk on the atmosphere (WHO).The significance of the experiment is to form low husk as an alternate resource to switch fiber. Methylene chloride liquid-liquid extraction was developed to avoid caffeine, tannin, and CGA spectral overlapping within the three hundred -700 nm wavelength vary. The results indicated increment deadly materials that have an effect on the atmosphere. From the experiment performed low husk are often used as an alternate resource for getting composites for might applications and solve the environmental issues.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 30-37
Kouame Affoue Hortense ◽  
Kouame Kouame Martin ◽  
Djirieoulou Kemomadjehi Claver ◽  
Boussou Koffi Charles ◽  

The abiotic typology of the different sampling stations based on physico-chemical parameters and the assessment of the nutrient load and the relative contributions of the different nutrient sources to this surface water were analysed. Five physical and chemical parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, transparency, pH and conductivity) were measured in situ at each sampling campaign in Lake Dohou over a period of one year, once a month at seven (7) selected stations. Water samples were taken for subsequent determination of dissolved solids, biological oxygen demand for 5 days and nutrient salts (nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, ammonium).Thephysico-chemical characterisation revealed weakly mineralised water with average conductivities varying from 12.38 ±16.33 µ to 39.63 ±45.28 µ with high temperatures in the dry season. A hierarchical ascending classification (HAC) was used to group the stations into 3 groups. Group I (stations 6), due to its exposure to domestic discharges and leaching from agricultural land, is heavily loaded with organic matter and nutrients. The values of the pollution index express a high organic pollution at all the sampling stations. The water of Lake Dohou is highly loaded with organic matter and receives a very high amount of pollutant from the environment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 267-276
Asep Sahidin ◽  
Zahidah Zahidah ◽  
Herman Hamdani ◽  
Heti Herawati ◽  
Mochamad Candra Wirawan Arief ◽  

Cijulang River is one of the leading ecotourism objects in Pangandaran, West Java Province, Indonesia. However, the river has a variety of activities that can increase the water pollution in the river such as Green Canyon cliffs tourism, ecotourism of mangrove conservation, housing, and industrial siting. Macrobenthos is one of the bio-indicators that can assess the rate of water pollution in rivers, especially their organic pollutants. Therefore, this research aims to determine water pollution status in Cijulang River Tourism by comparing various biotic indices. The study was conducted at four site sampling locations from upstream to downstream in the rainy season period and dry season period using different methods namely, line transect model, water quality assessment by biological indexing (diversity, species dominant, and family biotic), species deficit, and organic measurement. The research showed 5873 macrobenthos and divided into 27 species with an average abundance of 167 ind.m-2 and are mainly dominated by gastropod species Faunus ater (40%). They are extreme species that can live in high organic pollution and water salinity. This divided the research of quality water assessment of Cijulang River into three categories as follows: slightly polluted (score 36-46) at Green Canyon site, moderately polluted (score 50-60) at Boat Shelter and Muara Cijulang location, and highly polluted (score 66) at Nusawiru site.Keywords:RiverBio-indicatorOrganicAquatic pollution

2021 ◽  
Carlos Vargas-Chavez ◽  
Neil Michel Longo Pendy ◽  
Sandrine E. Nsango ◽  
Laura Aguilera ◽  
Diego Ayala ◽  

Anophelescoluzzii is one of the primary vectors of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, it has spread into the main cities of Central Africa threatening vector control programs. The adaptation of An. coluzzii to urban environments partly results from an increased tolerance to organic pollution and insecticides. Some of the molecular mechanisms for ecological adaptation are known, but the role of transposable elements (TEs) in the adaptive processes of this species has not been studied yet. As a first step toward assessing the role of TEs in rapid urban adaptation, we sequenced using long reads six An. coluzzii genomes from natural breeding sites in two major Central Africa cities. We de novo annotated TEs in these genomes and in an additional high-quality An. coluzzii genome, and we identified 64 new TE families. TEs were nonrandomly distributed throughout the genome with significant differences in the number of insertions of several superfamilies across the studied genomes. We identified seven putatively active families with insertions near genes with functions related to vectorial capacity, and several TEs that may provide promoter and transcription factor binding sites to insecticide resistance and immune-related genes. Overall, the analysis of multiple high-quality genomes allowed us to generate the most comprehensive TE annotation in this species to date and identify several TE insertions that could potentially impact both genome architecture and the regulation of functionally relevant genes. These results provide a basis for future studies of the impact of TEs on the biology of An. coluzzii.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (9) ◽  
pp. 1671-1675
B.O. Ekute ◽  
E.U. Etim

The effect of industrial effluents on surface water quality of Oruku River was investigated in this study by analyzing selected water quality indicators such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were examined amongst other physicochemical parameters using standard methods. Results show that, average pH of the surface waters ranged from 5.53±0.31 to 6.23±0.45 with SR3 having the highest value. This indicates that all the water sources were alkaline. The effluents had an average pH range of 5.95 ± 1.12 to 6.40 ± 0.48. A comparison of these average pH values with effluent quality standards indicated that the effluents pH were below limit (6.5-9.5). The average BOD levels in surface water ranged from 1.94 ± 0.95 for SR-4 to 3.78 ± 1.61 for SR-1. DO average values in surface water was found to be higher at SR-1 with a mean value of 5.36 ± 1.55 and lower at SR-2 with a mean value of 3.05 ± 0.68. The mean COD value for surface water ranged from 108.66 ± 73.03mg/L to 232.81 ± 155.46mg/L. SR-3 had the highest COD average value of 232.81 ± 155.46mg/L while there was a reduction at SR-5 to an average value of 108.66 ± 73.03mg/L. The high COD value in the surface water indicates that gross-organic pollution of the water source may be from other sources such as agricultural and urban run-offs.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 3629
Yuquan Zhao ◽  
Jian Shen ◽  
Jimeng Feng ◽  
Zhitong Sun ◽  
Tianyang Sun ◽  

Water quality estimation tools based on real-time monitoring are essential for the effective management of organic pollution in watersheds. This study aims to monitor changes in the levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD, CODMn) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in Erhai Lake Basin, exploring their relationships and the ability of DOM to estimate COD and CODMn. Excitation emission matrix–parallel factor analysis (EEM–PARAFAC) of DOM identified protein-like component (C1) and humic-like components (C2, C3, C4). Combined with random forest (RF), maximum fluorescence intensity (Fmax) values of components were selected as estimation parameters to establish models. Results proved that the COD of rivers was more sensitive to the reduction in C1 and C2, while CODMn was more sensitive to C4. The DOM of Erhai Lake thrived by internal sources, and the relationship between COD, CODMn, and DOM of Erhai Lake was more complicated than rivers (inflow rivers of Erhai Lake). Models for rivers achieved good estimations, and by adding dissolved oxygen and water temperature, the estimation ability of COD models for Erhai Lake was significantly improved. This study demonstrates that DOM-based machine learning can be used as an alternative tool for real-time monitoring of organic pollution and deepening the understanding of the relationship between COD, CODMn, and DOM, and provide a scientific basis for water quality management.

Salima Rezak ◽  
Farid Rahal ◽  
Abdellah Bahmani

The northwestern part of Algeria is characterized by a semi-arid climate which has created semi-permanent rivers and dams with low filling rates. It is important to preserve the water resource, which is becoming increasingly scarce. Additionally, it is worth indicating that the mobilized surface waters are continually under threat of significant organic pollution. Indeed, the dam of Cheurfas II, in the northwestern part of the country, is indicative of this situation. In order to establish a diagnosis of the state of the temporal evolution of water quality, time series of 11 variables indicating the presence of organic pollution in this dam were thus analyzed. The data collected were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test to look for significant trends and the Webel-Ollech test to detect the presence of seasonality. The results obtained showed increasing trends in dry residues, organic matter, phosphates and dissolved oxygen. However, variables like BOD5, COD and NO-3 showed decreasing trends. As for the variables NH+4, NO-2 and pH, they presented no trend. Finally, the water volume of the dam exhibited a significant increase. In addition, no seasonality was detected in the variables studied, with the exception of the PO43- time series and water volume. These findings indicate that the watershed of the dam received pollutants from different origins, in particular industrial pollutants. This makes water biodegradability difficult to achieve.

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