Quality Standard
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Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (18) ◽  
pp. 6141
Amin Amini ◽  
Jamil Kanfoud ◽  
Tat-Hean Gan

With the advancement of miniaturization in electronics and the ubiquity of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) in different applications including computing, sensing and medical apparatus, the importance of increasing production yields and ensuring the quality standard of products has become an important focus in manufacturing. Hence, the need for high-accuracy and automatic defect detection in the early phases of MEMS production has been recognized. This not only eliminates human interaction in the defect detection process, but also saves raw material and labor required. This research developed an automated defects recognition (ADR) system using a unique plenoptic camera capable of detecting surface defects of MEMS wafers using a machine-learning approach. The developed algorithm could be applied at any stage of the production process detecting defects at both entire MEMS wafer and single component scale. The developed system showed an F1 score of 0.81 U on average for true positive defect detection, with a processing time of 18 s for each image based on 6 validation sample images including 371 labels.

James L. Crooks ◽  
Rachel Licker ◽  
Adrienne L. Hollis ◽  
Brenda Ekwurzel

Abstract Background While ozone levels in the USA have decreased since the 1980s, the Denver Metro North Front Range (DMNFR) region remains in nonattainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Objective To estimate the warm season ozone climate penalty to characterize its impact on Colorado Front Range NAAQS attainment and health equity. Methods May to October ozone concentrations were estimated using spatio-temporal land-use regression models accounting for climate and weather patterns. The ozone climate penalty was defined as the difference between the 2010s concentrations and concentrations predicted using daily 2010s weather adjusted to match the 1950s climate, holding constant other factors affecting ozone formation. Results The ozone climate penalty was 0.5–1.0 ppb for 8-h max ozone concentrations. The highest penalty was around major urban centers and later in the summer. The penalty was positively associated with census tract-level percentage of Hispanic/Latino residents, children living within 100–200% of the federal poverty level, and residents with asthma, diabetes, fair or poor health status, or lacking health insurance. Significance The penalty increased the DMNFR ozone NAAQS design values, delaying extrapolated future attainment of the 2008 and 2015 ozone standards by approximately 2 years each, to 2025 and 2035, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 401-410
Sulaiman Abdullah ◽  
Sumarno ◽  
Amin Setyo Leksono ◽  
Sudarto ◽  
Sudirman Syam

The Mataloko geothermal system in Ngada-Flores Regency, East Nusa Tenggara, is located in three active volcanic mountains (Inerie, Ebulobo, and Inielika). The contribution of high levels of CH4 and exhaust emissions of SO2 due to its utilization as a geothermal power plant (GPP) impacts the environment. This study aims to analyze and spatially model the distribution and impact of SO2 and CH4 gas levels in the Mataloko GPP area. The quantitative descriptive method was used through direct measurement at gas wells and laboratory testing. The results showed a tendency to increase SO2 levels in the MT-4 gas-well with levels of 8.00 ppm exceeding the quality standard, which could disturb the environment in the Mataloko-GPP area. Impact of high SO2 will experience dry sediment because it is not combustible in the air, then it will drop slowly to be absorbed by soil and plants. Droplets of acid gas blown by the wind and left on trees and buildings are even inhaled into the breath. In addition, the advantages of model with surfer 12 software can help identify the distribution of SO2 and SO4 emissions in the generating area.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 34-39
Sirajuddin Sarah Soraya ◽  
Sumarlin Marlin ◽  
Rosdiana Rosdiana

This study analyzed the concentrations of TSP and CO at 2 different sites in Kota Kendari. Measurement of TSP levels at the site I, Jl. MT Haryono, the highest concentration occurred in the morning (79 g/Nm3) compared to midday (51 g/Nm3) and in the afternoon (46 g/Nm3). Judging from the quality standards based on PP No. 41 of the year 1999, the concentration of TSP and CO on Jl. MT Haryono has not exceeded the quality standard. However, according to PP No. 22 of the year 2021, the CO level has reached the quality standard threshold. At site II, the TSP level at Jl. The highest Achmad Yani occurred in the morning at 63 g/Nm3 compared to midday (28 g/Nm3) and in the afternoon (35 g/Nm3) while CO levels in the morning, afternoon, and evening remained stable at 12,000 g/Nm3. Based on PP No. 41 of the year 1999, the concentrations of TSP and CO in ambient air on Jl. Ahmad Yani has not exceeded the quality standard, but if it is reviewed based on PP no. 22 of the year 2021, CO levels have exceeded the quality standard threshold. Physical factors (temperature, wind speed, and humidity) and anthropogenic factors such as motorized vehicle traffic are maybe contributions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 460-471
Tusar Kumar Das ◽  
Molla Rahman Shaibur ◽  
Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman

Koyra (Khulna District) is the coastal Upazila of Bangladesh and is very susceptible to salinity intrusion. The surface and shallow tube well water in the Upazila is naturally saline. The quality of subterranean tube well water in the deliberate area is hardly presented for different Unions of Koyra. Dakshin Bedkashi Union of Koyra is very saline prone. Therefore, the groundwater chemistry of Dakshin Bedkashi Union was determined to legalize if the groundwater is fit for drinking and irrigation or not. Spatially dispersed 30 water samples were collected from the deep aquifer (550 to 700 feet depth) in December, 2016 and analyzed for physico-chemical properties. The outcomes were compared with WHO, USEPA and BBS drinking water quality standard and with FAO standard for irrigation purpose. The pH varied from 6.73 to 8.33, indicating that the water samples were within the WHO drinking water quality standard. The TDS showed a long range variation (230.5 to 2052.0 ppm) with an average of 841.23 ppm, of which 33% of water sources exceeded BBS standard value. The mean value of salinity was 0.65 (±0.43) ppt and EC was 1,400.9 (±904.18) µS cm-1. The loads of key ions were ranked as Na+> Ca2+> Mg2+> K+ and HCO3-> Cl-> SO42-> NO3-> PO4-. The Piper diagram demonstrated that the existing hydro-chemical facies of groundwater were Na+-Cl--HCO3- and Na+-Ca2+-HCO3- type. The Gibbs diagram illustrated that the chemical arrangement of groundwater is mainly misrepresented by rock weathering. Silicate weathering was the profuse process along study area. The Wilcox diagram proved that the greater water sources were allowable to suspicious for irrigation. The core component analysis ensured that rock suspension and sea water intrusion was the primary source of ions in groundwater. The controlling factors of groundwater chemistry were typically related to geologic factors, while the anthropogenic factors have not any momentous effects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Wellington Souto Ribeiro ◽  
Adriano Sant’Ana Silva ◽  
Álvaro Gustavo Ferreira da Silva ◽  
Ana Marinho do Nascimento ◽  
Marcelo Augusto Rocha Limão ◽  

AbstractThe solar dryer can reduce production costs, energy consumption, waste (use fruits outside the quality standard for fresh consumption) and is an alternative for small and medium producers. The solar dryer can reduce costs and is an alternative for small and medium producers worldwide. The consumption of fresh and processed tomatoes is high in the world, but post-harvest losses is also and drying is an alternative to reduce these losses. The temperature maintenance and drying time corresponds 30% of the costs. The objective was evaluated the tomato physicochemical characteristics after drying in handmade solar dryer. ‘Carmen’ tomato fruits were bleached in water, 2.5% NaCl solution, 2.5% NaCl + 0.5% CaCl2 solution and unbleached. Tomato slices were placed in a handmade solar dryer from 7:00 to 17:00. The solar dryer prototype was wood made, comprising a collector and a drying chamber. The average cost of the camera was US$ 13.08 (1 Brazilian Real = 0.26 United States Dollar). Water loss, drying kinetics, mathematical models and physicochemical characteristics of fresh and dried tomatoes were evaluated. The average length of solar drying for the four treatments was 30 h and the Midilli and Kucuk mathematical model was the most adjusted. The acidity, reducing sugars and soluble solids were concentrated by drying, while ascorbic acid was reduced. The pH did not change. Tomatoes 'Carmen' can be dried in a handmade solar dryer for 30 h while maintaining product quality.

Sayyid Arrasyid ◽  
Zahidah Hasan ◽  
Izza Mahdiana Apriliani ◽  
Heti Herawati

Cirata Reservoir is one of the three cascade reservoirs fed by the Citarum Watershed with an area of ​​62 km2 (6.200 ha) and has a water volume of 1.900 million m3. The great potential of the waters in the Cirata Reservoir is utilized by the local community as a source of livelihood, namely by conducting aquaculture activities using floating net cages (FNC) in excess. FNC is thought to be a source of waste that reduces reservoir water quality. This research aims to determine the impact of FNC cultivation on primary productivity with different FNC densities at each station. The research was conducted in Cianjur Regency by taking on three stations, namely in the areas of Jangari, Maleber, and Patok Beusi on November 6 - December 8, 2019. The method used in the research was purposive sampling then analyzed in detail and quantitatively. The results show that reservoir waters have an average of physical parameters, namely temperature 32.2-32.6oC, transparency 0.59-0.68 meters, pH 7.1-7.3, carbon dioxide 15.4-16.1 mg / l, Dissolved Oxygen 6.9-7.3 mg / l, Biochemical Oxygen Demand 6.1-7.8 mg / l, nitrate 0.208-0.222 mg / l, ammonia 0.002833-0.003056 mg / l, phosphate 0,165-0,167 mg / l and primary productivity 240,36-277,90 mgC/m3/hour. This shows that the water indicator is still classified as good because it does not exceed the water quality standard.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 130-138
Desiyarotur Risykiyana ◽  
Muhammad Yusril Bahtiar ◽  
Farid Sukmana

In the development of a system, quality assurance is needed. A system can be said to be of good quality if it meets the needs of the user. Quality can be measured from various points of view. One point of view to measure software quality is to focus on service management systems. To determine the quality of a system, it is necessary to analyze the quality of the system. The school library system at MTs Muhammadiyah 8 Ujungpangkah has implemented a lot of service management systems to support the process of activities in the library. However, it is not yet known whether the system is in accordance with the assessment standards or not.The author uses the ISO 20000 standard to assess the requirements for obtaining a certificate in the library application by conducting various analyses. This study aims to analyze the application of the library system with ISO 20000. The analytical research methods used include determining clauses, checklists, Likert scale, maturity levels, and fishbone diagrams. The references that I take are based on the results of the analysis of the writing team that I have made including graphs, diagrams, clause scores, checklist scores, Likert scales, maturity levels, and fishbone diagrams. Based on the results of the author's analysis, the school library application system at MTs Muhammadiyah 8 Ujungpangkah does not meet the ISO 20000 standard so that there is still much that needs to be improved in the library system. The Likert scale score is only 11%, while to meet the ISO 20000 standard the Likert scale score must reach at least 60%. The overall problem with this analytical assessment that results in the Library System application not passing the ISO 20000 quality standard is the lack of a Likert scale score and fishbone diagram. With fishbone diagram, the main root cause is found with organitation structure that is not clear to monitor the application working. The hypothesis in this study can be the basis for future research so that the application can meet the feasibility test of the ISO 20000 quality standard.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 153-160
A Ichaver ◽  
RT Koughna ◽  
DS Hongor

This work assessed and compared the concentrations of some gaseous pollutants in some selected standard kitchens in Makurdi-Nigeria using in-situ measurements and models estimates. Mean concentrations of CO, NO2 and SO2 were measured using Crowcon gasman meters in all the selected kitchens. The results obtained show that CO and NO2 concentrations were observed in all the selected kitchens in concentrations below the permissible limit of 20 ppm and 0.6 ppm respectively set by National Ambient Air Quality Standard and SO2 was not observed. The mean concentrations for model estimates were found to be slightly higher compared to that of in-situ measurement in all the study kitchens for both pollutants, which is an indication of the strength of the model estimate. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was also computed to be 0.99 and 0.36 for CO and NO2respectively. The correlation is very strong and positive for CO (r = 0.99) and is weak but also positive for NO2 (r = 0.37). This implies that the model estimates used in this work has 99 % validity estimating indoor concentrations of CO where in-situ measurements are not possible. However, the positive correlation between the in-situ measurements and models estimates indicate that both are positively related.

EnviroUS ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 74-80
Munawar Ali ◽  
Annisa Nurjanna

The Benowo Landfill (TPA) in Surabaya applies the Open Dumping method so that it has the potential to produce leachate which can pollute the surrounding environment. The leachate storage system in TPA Benowo also plays a role in the possibility of leachate leaking into groundwater and polluting the quality of freshwater aquaculture pond water around Benowo TPA. The method used is the purposive sampling method, which is by taking several samples scattered around the center of the Benowo landfill waste dump, then testing the COD concentration, which is then the results of the COD measurement, plotted on a map to analyze the distribution pattern. The results showed that there was an indication that pond water around the Benowo landfill had been contaminated with leachate which was shown by the COD concentration in 14 test samples, only 3 according to the quality standard of PP RI No.82 of 2001.

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