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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 219-230
Author(s):  
Erik Febriarta ◽  
Muh Aris Marfai ◽  
Dhandhun Wacano ◽  
Ajeng Larasati ◽  
Dyah Rahmawati Hizbaron

Fomasi litologi akuifer batugamping mempunyai karakteristik media aliran berupa celah, rekahan, dan lorong pelarutan, sehingga memiliki potensi mengalirkan airtanah dengan kecepatan tinggi. Produktivitas yang tinggi ini mengakibatkan sumber pencemar di permukaan dapat dengan cepat meresap ke sistem akuifer dan bercampur dengan airtanah; kondisi inilah yang memicu kerentanan tinggi. Salah satu langkah pengelolaan airtanah pesisir adalah penentuan zona kerentanan airtanah terhadap pencemaran. Dengan demikian, tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat kerentanan airtanah pesisir terhadap pencemaran di formasi batugamping menggunakan metode COP dengan pendekatan intrinsik dan metode EPIK dengan pendekatan perkembangan karst. Hasil penilaian menggunakan kedua metode tersebut menunjukkan tingkat kerentanan rendah hingga sangat tinggi. Pemetaan metode COP menghasilkan dua kelas kerentanan: rendah (95% dari luas wilayah) dan sedang (4%), sedangkan metode EPIK menghasilkan zona indeks kerentanan yang lebih panjang dengan empat kelas kerentanan, yaitu rendah (1,23%), sedang (17,82%), tinggi (17,82%), dan sangat tinggi (21,65%). Dibandingkan dengan COP, EPIK menghasilkan kelas kerentanan yang lebih tinggi karena pengaruh koefisien pembobot pada formula penghitungannya. Hasil penilaian kerentanan divalidasi dengan indikator limbah domestik berupa senyawa nitrat (NO3). Uji laboratorium menunjukkan kandungan nitrat (NO3) airtanah yang bervariasi dari 0,12 mg/l (terendah) hingga 9,80 mg/l (tertinggi). Variasi ini masih berada di bawah baku mutu air minum tetapi di atas baku mutu air limbah domestik atau melebihi kadar nitrat di alam. Berdasarkan hasil validasi, zona kerentanan berkorelasi dengan kandungan nitrat (NO3). Pada zona kerentanan yang tinggi, ditemukan kadar nitrat yang tinggi pula.ABSTRACTA limestone aquifer is lithologically characterized by three flow media: fissures, fractures, and dissolution channels, thus creating the potential to drain groundwater at a high rate. This high productivity, however, means that the groundwater is highly vulnerable to pollution. If a pollutant source is present on the surface, it can quickly seep into and mix with the subsurface system. Among the widely proposed management strategies is groundwater vulnerability zoning. This study was intended to determine the degrees of coastal groundwater vulnerability to pollution in a limestone formation with two methods: COP intrinsic vulnerability) and EPIK (karst development-based vulnerability). The assessment results showed that the vulnerability produced with both methods varied from low to very high. In the mapping, COP produced two levels: low (95% of the total area) and medium (4%), while EPIK generated a longer vulnerability index zone with four levels: low (1.23%), medium (17.82%), high (17.82%), and very high (21.65%). Compared to COP, EPIK results in a higher vulnerability class due to the weighting values in its vulnerability assessment. The results were validated with a domestic waste indicator: the presence of nitrate (NO3). Laboratory tests showed NO3 concentrations in the range 0.12 of 9.80 mg/l. These figures are still below the quality standard for drinking water but above that of domestic wastes or exceeding the maximum NO3 content found in nature. The validation revealed that the vulnerability zone is correlated with NO3 levels: the higher the vulnerability class of the zone, the higher the nitrate content.


Technologies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Author(s):  
Ioanna Dratsiou ◽  
Annita Varella ◽  
Evangelia Romanopoulou ◽  
Oscar Villacañas ◽  
Sara Cooper ◽  
...  

As people age, they are more likely to develop multiple chronic diseases and experience a decline in some of their physical and cognitive functions, leading to the decrease in their ability to live independently. Innovative technology-based interventions tailored to older adults’ functional levels and focused on healthy lifestyles are considered imperative. This work proposed a framework of active and healthy ageing through the integration of a broad spectrum of digital solutions into an open Pan-European technological platform in the context of the SHAPES project, an EU-funded innovation action. In conclusion, the SHAPES project can potentially engage older adults in a holistic technological ecosystem and, therefore, facilitate the maintenance of a high-quality standard of life.


Author(s):  
Yayat Hidayat ◽  
Wahyu Purwakusuma ◽  
Sri Malahayati Yusuf ◽  
Latief Mahir Rachman ◽  
Enni Dwi Wahjunie ◽  
...  

The research is aimed to analyze leachate, surface water and ground water characteristics around  Galuga landfill site, Bogor District. Water samples had been taken in dry season of 2014 and in the end of rainy season of 2015 from several sites in areas around Galuga landfills which included leachate water, surface water, and ground water.  Leachate, surface water and ground water had   temperature and pH in normal ranges; whereas nitrate and Pb contents were high to very high levels, especially in  site adjacent to waste piles. The concentrations decreased in line with increasing distance from waste piles. Higher content of nitrate in leachate occurred in dry season, but in well water it was found in rainy season. Meanwhile,  Pb content in well water were high, both in dry and rainy seasons. Concentrations of nitrate and Pb in leachate water were higher than wastewater quality standard, so that the leachate water were not safe to be discharged directly to natural water body. The high content of nitrate and Pb caused the well water unsuitable to be consumed without water treatment processing.


Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 72
Author(s):  
Yajun Chang ◽  
Huijun Zhao ◽  
Linhe Sun ◽  
Jian Cui ◽  
Jixiang Liu ◽  
...  

The utilization of livestock waste has attracted increasing attention in recent years. The presence of high levels of heavy metals is a major obstacle to the utilization of biogas as a fertilizer resource. In this study, the heavy metal contents in biogas residue, slurry, and discharged sewage from three representative farms of gooseries, henneries, and dairy farms in the Yangtze River Basin were investigated and assessed. The results demonstrated that heavy metals, including Cd, Mn, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, etc., could be detected in all biogas residues, with significantly different contents between farm types (p < 0.005). Specifically, biogas residues from the goosery and the dairy farms met “China’s Organic Fertilizer Standards” (COF Standards); however, Cd concentrations in biogas residues from hennery farms exceeded the limits by five times. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in biogas slurries from all of the farms exceeded the limits of the “China Farmland Irrigation Water Quality Standard” (CFIWQ Standard). In particular, the Pb concentrations in biogas slurry from the dairy farms exceeded the limits by 29 times, and the discharged sewage from all three farm types complied with the comprehensive sewage discharge standards in China; however, only that from the goosery farms was suitable for irrigation. Thus, it is recommended to increase the feed selection, biogas engineering, and biological-purification-supporting technology, and to carry out regular sampling inspections of the biogas residue, slurry, and discharged sewage for heavy metals, so that environmental and crop pollution risks can be reduced when they are used as sources of nutrients for eco-friendly agriculture.


2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 271-278
Author(s):  
Funty Septiyawati Polapa ◽  
Rahmawati Nur Annisa ◽  
Rahmawati Nur Annisa ◽  
Dewi Yanuarita ◽  
Dewi Yanuarita ◽  
...  

Kota Makassar merupakan pusat kota di Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan yang memiliki aktifitas wilayah pesisir, seperti pemanfataan industri, pariwisata, transportasi laut serta memiliki dua sungai besar yang muara di perairan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasilogam berat dalam air dan sedimen serta menentukan status mutunya. Pengamatan dilakukan pada 10 lokasi strategis sumber pencemar seperti pabrik, hotel, muara sungai serta pelabuhan dengan mengambil sampel air dan sedimen dan selanjutnya dianalisis di laboratorium untuk logam berat Cd, Cr, Hg, Zn, Cu dan Pb. Statistik deskriptif digunakan untuk menganalisis data yang ada. Metode Indeks Pencemar dan Storet (Storage and Retrieval) digunakan untuk menentukan status mutu air dan sedimen dari logam berat untuk biota laut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan perairan Kota Makassar tergolong dalam kategori “Cemar Ringan” berdasarkan hasil perhitungan indeks Pencemar sedangkan status mutu perairan tergolong “Cemar Berat”. Parameter logam berat di kolom perairan yang melampaui baku mutu adalah Krom (0,016±0,005) dan Tembaga (0,112±0,035). Sedangkan untuk parameter logam berat sedimen secara keseluruhan masih berada dalam ambang batas baku mutu yang telah ditentukan. Kondisi tercemar berasal dari aktifitas reklamasi pantai serta sumber alami dan limbah domestik dari aktifitas masyarakat cukup tinggi.ABSTRACTMakassar City is the city center in South Sulawesi Province which has coastal area activities, such as the use of industry, tourism, sea transportation and has two large rivers that estuary into the waters. This study aims to determine the concentration of heavy metals in water and sediment and determine their quality status. Observations were made at 10 strategic locations of pollutant sources such as factories, hotels, river mouths, and ports by taking water and sediment samples and then analyzed in the laboratory for heavy metals Cd, Cr, Hg, Zn, Cu, and Pb. Descriptive statistics are used to analyze the existing data. The Pollutant Index and Storet (Storage and Retrieval) method is used to determine the status of water and sediment quality of heavy metals for marine biota. The results of this study indicate that the waters of Makassar City are classified as "Lightly Polluted" based on the results of the calculation of the Pollutant index while the status of the water quality is classified as "Heavy Polluted". Parameters of heavy metals in the water column that exceed the quality standard are chromium (0,016±0,005) and copper (0,112±0,035). Meanwhile, the parameters of the sediment heavy metals as a whole are still within the specified quality standard. Polluted conditions derived from coastal reclamation activities as well as natural sources and domestic waste from community activities are quite high.


2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 291-301
Author(s):  
Dharma Wangsa ◽  
Vera Surtia Bachtiar ◽  
Slamet Raharjo

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji model AERMOD dalam memprediksi sebaran PM10 di udara ambien kawasan PT Semen Padang. Lokasi penelitian sebanyak 32 titik berdasarkan 8 arah mata angin dengan jarak 0,5 km, 1 km, 1,5 km dan 2 km dari PT Semen Padang. Pengukuran PM10 menggunakan EPAM 5000 Real Time Particulate Air Monitor dilanjutkan pemetaan dengan software Surfer 11. Waktu pengukuran dibagi menjadi 4 shift, yaitu shift 1 (00.00 – 05.59 WIB), shift 2 (06.00 – 11.59 WIB), shift 3 (12.00 – 17.59 WIB) dan shift 4 (18.00 – 23.59 WIB). Pengambilan data meteorologi (temperatur udara, tekanan udara, kelembapan, kecepatan angin dan arah angin) menggunakan alat Meteorological Station PCE-FWS-20 untuk input data pada AERMET, dilanjutkan prediksi sebaran PM10 menggunakan software AERMOD View 8.9.0. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan konsentrasi PM10 dengan EPAM 5000 berkisar antara 21,0 – 79,0 µg/m3 dengan rata-rata 24 jam sebesar 41,7 µg/m3. Konsentrasi PM10 dengan AERMOD berkisar antara 3,5 sampai 68,0 µg/m3 dengan rata-rata 24 jam sebesar 10,6 µg/m3. Jika dibandingkan dengan baku mutu untuk Peraturan Pemerintah No. 22 Tahun 2021 tentang Penyelenggaraan Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup, lokasi 11 dengan koordinat S 0°56'52.46" dan E 100°27'41.88"  pada  jarak 1 km kawasan Barat PT Semen Padang tidak memenuhi baku mutu. Model mendekati ideal atau dikatakan sempurna yaitu lokasi arah Timur dan Timur Laut karena elevasi yang lebih tinggi dari sumber emisi dan merupakan arah angin dominan pada siang hari.ABSTRACTThis study aims to test the AERMOD model in predicting the distribution of PM10 in the ambient air of the PT Semen Padang area. The research locations were 32 points based on eight cardinal directions with a radius of 0.5 km, 1 km, 1.5 km, and 2 km from PT Semen Padang. PM10 measurement using EPAM 5000 Real-Time Particulate Air Monitor followed by mapping with Surfer 11 software. The measurement time is divided into four shifts, namely shift 1 (00.00 – 05.59 WIB), shift 2 (06.00 – 11.59 WIB), shift 3 (12.00 – 17.59 WIB), and shift 4 (18.00 – 23.59 WIB). Meteorological data retrieval (air temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind speed and wind direction) using the Meteorological Station PCE-FWS-20 for data input to AERMET, followed by prediction of PM10 distribution using AERMOD View 8.9.0 software. The results showed that the concentration of PM10 with EPAM 5000 ranged from 21.0 – 79.0 g/m3 with a 24-hour average of 41.7 g/m3. The concentration of PM10 with AERMOD ranged from 3.5 - 68.0 g/m3 with a 24-hour average of 10.6 g/m3. When compared with the quality standard for Government Regulation no. 22 of 2021 concerning the Implementation of Environmental Protection and Management, location 11 with coordinates S 0°56'52.46" and E 100°27'41.88" at a distance of 1 km west of PT Semen Padang does not meet the quality standards. The model is close to ideal or is said to be perfect, namely the location of the East and Northeast directions because of the higher elevation of the emission source and the dominant wind direction during the day.


2022 ◽  
pp. 397-414
Author(s):  
Rashmi Khazanchi ◽  
Pankaj Khazanchi

Inclusive education means educating students with special needs in an age-appropriate general education setting where students receive high-quality, standard-based instructions, interventions, and support that enable them to experience success in the general education classroom. Effective pedagogical practices involve the collaboration of both special education teacher and general education teacher to identify and implement effective teaching practices which enhance student engagement and promote higher-order thinking skills. Special education teacher supports the general education teacher in adapting curriculum and teaching methods, modifying assessments, and providing accommodations to students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Effective pedagogical practices are affected by teacher's belief; students' disabilities; and their roles and responsibilities towards the students with disabilities. This chapter examines previous researches and studies that investigate effective pedagogical practices in inclusive classrooms for students with disabilities.


2021 ◽  
pp. 152808372110575
Author(s):  
Gayathri Natarajan ◽  
Palani Rajan T

Motorcycle protective clothing is designed to protect motorcyclists from injuries during accidents. It helps to protect the motorcyclist and pillion passengers during the collision and acts as a barrier between the rider’s skin and tarmac surface. Soft tissue trauma is common in motorcycle accidents and protective clothing can protect the soft tissue of the riders up to a certain extent during accidents. Though there are many reasons for road accidents and injuries, the reasons such as uncomfortable clothing, thermally inefficient protective clothing during hot climatic conditions, and ineffective performance of the personal protective equipment (PPE) are also to be considered seriously. Motorcycle clothing is specially designed in such a way that it could give better protection against impact and abrasion during the collision. An increase in the usage of the motorcycle has also in turn increased the crash statistics. This paper deals with the significance of motorcycle clothing, materials, test standards, and their performance characteristics. As per the review results, most of the motorcycle protective clothing has failed to meet out the quality standard protocols. Impact resistance, abrasion resistance, thermal comfort, and ergonomics are the major areas where more focus is required. Design of appropriate fabrics assuring requisites of motorcycle clothing is very challenging and extensive research is still intended in these areas.


Author(s):  
Helder Henrique de Faria ◽  
Andréa Soares Pires ◽  
Paulo Jancar Curi

This work presents the monitoring of the effectiveness of the management of the Morro do Diabo State Park, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during fourteen years (2002-2016), divided into six-time cuts for which management effectiveness indices were obtained. This protected area (PA) of category II of the World Conservation Union is responsible for the conservation of important species of Brazilian biodiversity, especially the leonthopitecus chrysopygus, which until the 1980s was considered the most endangered primate of the planet and which this park has its largest free population in nature. The methodological procedure used was an adaptation of the one proposed by Cifuentes, Izurieta, and Faria (2000), commonly denominated EMAP, an acronym of the initials in Spanish. The results indicate that at the beginning of the analyzed period the AP had reasonable conditions for its management, although it presented difficulties related to planning and administration, problems solved from a joint organizational and local effort, prioritizing actions for results. The management quality standard gradually increased, with a greater perception of the scope of the area's management objectives, since in addition to the ecosystem services resulting from its existence, the PA started to offer real benefits to the community by improving and increasing public use and environmental education, for example. However, the effectiveness of management has decreased to previous levels, having as main factors endogenous aspects of the management system linked to indicators limited to management, with repercussions on other management components.


2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (6) ◽  
pp. 1307-1316
Author(s):  
Royston Uning ◽  
Fatin Adlina Md Nasir ◽  
Suhaimi Suratman

This study was conducted to determine the concentration and possible sources of dissolved and particulate heavy metals in Lake Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia. The heavy metals studied included Cd, Fe, Pb, Zn and Cu. The findings indicated that the mean concentrations found in the dissolved form for surface waters were in decreasing order of Fe>Zn>Pb~Cu>Cd. A similar trend was also recorded for the particulate form i.e., Fe>Zn>Pb~Cu>Cd. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the heavy metals showed a trend of increasing concentrations from the surface to the bottom waters. The main sources of heavy metals were from anthropogenic activities such as discharge of untreated sewage, surface runoff and boat activity. However, the levels of dissolved heavy metals were still lower compared to other study areas in Malaysia. The dissolved heavy metal concentrations were equivalent with Class II based on the National Water Quality Standard for Malaysia.


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