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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 219-230
Author(s):  
Erik Febriarta ◽  
Muh Aris Marfai ◽  
Dhandhun Wacano ◽  
Ajeng Larasati ◽  
Dyah Rahmawati Hizbaron

Fomasi litologi akuifer batugamping mempunyai karakteristik media aliran berupa celah, rekahan, dan lorong pelarutan, sehingga memiliki potensi mengalirkan airtanah dengan kecepatan tinggi. Produktivitas yang tinggi ini mengakibatkan sumber pencemar di permukaan dapat dengan cepat meresap ke sistem akuifer dan bercampur dengan airtanah; kondisi inilah yang memicu kerentanan tinggi. Salah satu langkah pengelolaan airtanah pesisir adalah penentuan zona kerentanan airtanah terhadap pencemaran. Dengan demikian, tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat kerentanan airtanah pesisir terhadap pencemaran di formasi batugamping menggunakan metode COP dengan pendekatan intrinsik dan metode EPIK dengan pendekatan perkembangan karst. Hasil penilaian menggunakan kedua metode tersebut menunjukkan tingkat kerentanan rendah hingga sangat tinggi. Pemetaan metode COP menghasilkan dua kelas kerentanan: rendah (95% dari luas wilayah) dan sedang (4%), sedangkan metode EPIK menghasilkan zona indeks kerentanan yang lebih panjang dengan empat kelas kerentanan, yaitu rendah (1,23%), sedang (17,82%), tinggi (17,82%), dan sangat tinggi (21,65%). Dibandingkan dengan COP, EPIK menghasilkan kelas kerentanan yang lebih tinggi karena pengaruh koefisien pembobot pada formula penghitungannya. Hasil penilaian kerentanan divalidasi dengan indikator limbah domestik berupa senyawa nitrat (NO3). Uji laboratorium menunjukkan kandungan nitrat (NO3) airtanah yang bervariasi dari 0,12 mg/l (terendah) hingga 9,80 mg/l (tertinggi). Variasi ini masih berada di bawah baku mutu air minum tetapi di atas baku mutu air limbah domestik atau melebihi kadar nitrat di alam. Berdasarkan hasil validasi, zona kerentanan berkorelasi dengan kandungan nitrat (NO3). Pada zona kerentanan yang tinggi, ditemukan kadar nitrat yang tinggi pula.ABSTRACTA limestone aquifer is lithologically characterized by three flow media: fissures, fractures, and dissolution channels, thus creating the potential to drain groundwater at a high rate. This high productivity, however, means that the groundwater is highly vulnerable to pollution. If a pollutant source is present on the surface, it can quickly seep into and mix with the subsurface system. Among the widely proposed management strategies is groundwater vulnerability zoning. This study was intended to determine the degrees of coastal groundwater vulnerability to pollution in a limestone formation with two methods: COP intrinsic vulnerability) and EPIK (karst development-based vulnerability). The assessment results showed that the vulnerability produced with both methods varied from low to very high. In the mapping, COP produced two levels: low (95% of the total area) and medium (4%), while EPIK generated a longer vulnerability index zone with four levels: low (1.23%), medium (17.82%), high (17.82%), and very high (21.65%). Compared to COP, EPIK results in a higher vulnerability class due to the weighting values in its vulnerability assessment. The results were validated with a domestic waste indicator: the presence of nitrate (NO3). Laboratory tests showed NO3 concentrations in the range 0.12 of 9.80 mg/l. These figures are still below the quality standard for drinking water but above that of domestic wastes or exceeding the maximum NO3 content found in nature. The validation revealed that the vulnerability zone is correlated with NO3 levels: the higher the vulnerability class of the zone, the higher the nitrate content.


Author(s):  
Marcello Alinovi ◽  
Massimiliano Rinaldi ◽  
Maria Paciulli ◽  
Paola Littardi ◽  
Emma Chiavaro

AbstractIn breadmaking, dietary fibres are used to improve the nutritional quality of the final products; on the other hand, they may affect the physical and sensory properties. This work aimed to the evaluate, on pan breads, the effect of substituting 3 g of wheat flour with an equivalent amount of fibre rich ingredients: chestnut peels (CP) or wheat bran (WB), in comparison to a traditional wheat bread formulation (C). The effect of four levels of added water (54, 60, 66, 71 g/100 of flour) was also tested. The fibre content of CP (33%) and WB (42%) affected their water binding capacity and, consequently, the quality of the final loaves, according to the different water addition levels. In bread crumb, water content and water activity increased proportionally to the water addition levels, being instead in the crust also affected by the presence of fibres: lower water retention capacity was observed for CP, in comparison to WB and C. The loaf volume resulted higher for C in comparison to WB and CP, in relation to the larger dimensions of the crumb pores, probably due to the interfering effect of fibres during the development of the gluten network. Crumb hardness resulted higher for C at low water addition levels, being instead higher for CP at high water addition levels. CP showed a darker and redder colour, than both WB and C bread, for the presence of the brown pigments carried by chestnut peels. PCA analysis confirmed that more water is required for both the fibre-enriched breads to show characteristics similar to the control loaves.


Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 296
Author(s):  
Nur-Us-Shafa Mazumder ◽  
Sumit Mandal ◽  
Robert J. Agnew ◽  
Adriana Petrova ◽  
Lynn M. Boorady ◽  
...  

More than 60,000 firefighters’ injuries were reported by the National Fire Protection Association in the U.S. in 2019. Inadequate protection by bunker gear could be a reason for most of the injuries. Firefighters repeatedly encounter thermal hazards due to their job responsibilities. Degradation could occur on bunker gear fabric during thermal exposure. It has been found that the presence of moisture affects performance as well, which may come from wearers’ sweat. Proper evaluation of the tensile strength of the fabrics used in bunker gear could provide information essential for maintenance the overall integrity of the gear. An evaluation of the tensile strength of fabrics when exposed to 10, 15, and 20 kW/m2 radiant heat flux in the presence of moisture is reported. In each fabric system, a total of sixty-four different samples were prepared for four different types of fabric and four levels of moisture which were exposed to three different radiant heat flux for five minutes. Heat flux and moisture levels have significant impact on tensile strength. The effect of moisture on tensile strength in a three-layered fabric system is higher than that for a single layer fabric. An understanding of the impact of heat and moisture on fabric strength has been achieved.


Author(s):  
Min Hu ◽  
Anders Olsson ◽  
Stephen Hall ◽  
Thomas Seifert

AbstractThe connection between branch and trunk in a tree must be strong enough to transfer all loads acting on the branch, and it is well known that such branch-stem connections are indeed very strong. In this paper, X-ray computer tomography is employed to investigate the local fibre orientation in the close surrounding of a knot in a Norway spruce specimen to better understand the origins of the mechanical strength of the branch-trunk connection. First, a wood specimen containing an entire knot from pith to bark was imaged with a voxel size of 52 µm. Subsequently, smaller specimens were cut from this original specimen and imaged again with increasingly higher resolution over four levels. With the highest resolution level (2.6 µm voxel size), the tracheids with smallest lumen were successfully traced. The results revealed how the direction of the fibre paths that start below the knot curve around it as the paths progress upwards to the region just above the knot, where the paths divide into two: one set of paths integrating with the knot on its top side and the other set continuing up along the trunk. Fibres that integrate with the knot at its top follow paths just before they continue into the knot, with a radius of curvature of only about 1 mm in both vertical and horizontal directions. No abrupt change of fibre pattern between latewood and earlywood is observed; rather, a continuous change of fibre direction across annual layers can be seen. The detailed characterisation of the local fibre structure around the knot provides new data that can explain the remarkable strength of the branch-trunk connection.


Author(s):  
Chaimae Abadi ◽  
Imad Manssouri ◽  
Asmae Abadi

Over the last decades, there has been growing pressure on industrial companies to offer to their costumers products with high quality, in the minimum deadlines and with reasonable prices. Since the design phase plays a key role to achieve these difficult goals, many traditional, DFX (Design For X) and integrated approaches have been proposed. However, many limits are still present. Thus, the main objectives of this work were first to identify these limits and then to overcome them by proposing and developing an automated framework for integrated product design. In this work, we automated the integrated DFMMA (Design For Materials, Manufacturing and Assembly) approach by developing an architecture composed of four levels, namely: the Common Information Modeling Level, the Selection Systems Level, the Inference and Computation Level and finally the Application Level. The proposed automated system is based on ontologies, on the CBR (Cases Based Reasoning) and the RBR (Rules Based Reasoning). The first main result obtained throughout the contributions consists on the integration of Manufacturing process selection, Assembly solution selection and materials selection in one integrated design approach. The second main result obtained consists on the exploitation of all the previous design studies developed by the design team and the ability to reuse the designers experience throughout the case based reasoning used in the proposed architecture. Another important result consists on the formalization and the automation of the execution of the design rules and the ability to infer new results and to check inconsistencies in the developed product using the data and information modeled in the ontological model and throughout the Cases Based Reasoning that we have incorporated in the developed approach. In this way, the redundancy in work and the difficulties faced in case of having a high number of design alternatives are avoided. Consequently, the product quality increases and wastes of time and money decrease. Finally, to validate the functioning and the efficacy of the proposed DFMMA system, an application on the design of a complex mechanical product is developed in the end of the work.


Author(s):  
D. M. Pereira ◽  
E. M. Santos ◽  
J. S. Oliveira ◽  
F. N. S. Santos ◽  
R. C. Lopes ◽  
...  

Abstract The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of cactus pear as a moistening additive on fermentative and microbiological characteristics, aerobic stability (AS), chemical composition and in situ rumen degradability of corn grain silage at different opening times. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme with four levels of dry matter (DM) (50; 60; 70 and 80% of DM) and three opening times (30; 60 and 120 days after ensiling), with four replications. There was an effect of interaction (P < 0.05) between the DM levels and opening times on silage yeast population, effluent losses, gas losses, dry matter recovery (DMR), AS of the silage and on lactic acid bacteria, mould and yeast populations after AS trial. The 60% DM level presented DMR values above 930 g/kg of DM. However, the lowest AS time (96.52 h) was observed in silages with 60% DM at 60 days after ensiling, although all silages have shown high AS. The DM in situ degradability of the ensiled mass increased after the ensiling process at all DM levels and opening times, with the 60% DM content showing the best result. When using cactus pear as a corn grain moistening additive, the 60% DM level is recommended when the opening time is up 120 days.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (4) ◽  
pp. 1032-1040
Author(s):  
Ye. R. Kravchuk

The present study featured the image of a TV hostess in such genres as chat interview and portrait interview. The speech genre is a factor that affects the linguistic image of a media personality. The linguistic image explicates various linguistic means used by TV hostesses to achieve the main goal of the speech genre. The research objective was to demonstrate the interrelation between the TV hostess image and the chat / portrait interview speech genres. The study involved the descriptive method, the qualitative and quantitative content analysis, and the discourse analysis. The linguistic image was analyzed at four levels. Each level revealed units that served as markers of the linguistic image of a TV hostess during chat and portrait interviews. The research results can be applied in theoretical and practical courses of media discourse theory, as well as in special courses of media linguistics, linguistic imagology, and communicative genreology. Further research is required to identify the nonverbal means of the image of a TV hostess in these speech genres.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Laurent Mériade ◽  
Corinne Rochette

Abstract Background Political and managerial reforms affect the health sector by translating into governance tensions. As identified in the public management literature, these tensions come from the diffusion of management principles and practices from the business world. These tensions manifest at four levels: institutional, organisational, managerial and instrumental. The aim of this research is to understand how these tensions are expressed in healthcare organisations of different status. Methods We conduct a contrasting case study exploring the cases of two French healthcare organisations, one private for-profit (clinic) and one public not-for-profit (cancer treatment centre). Our analyses are mainly based on the content analysis of 32 semi-structured interviews conducted with staff (nurses, doctors, management and administrative staff) of these two organisations. Results Our results show that these tensions can be distinguished into three categories (tensions on professional values, standards and practices) which are expressed differently depending on the type of healthcare organisation and its main management characteristics. Conclusions Unexpectedly, in the for-profit organisation, the most intense tensions concern professional standards, whereas they concern professional practices in the not-for-profit organisation. These analyses can help guide policy makers and healthcare managers to better integrate these tensions into their political and managerial decisions.


Author(s):  
Abhinav Kumar Yadav ◽  
S.P. Singh ◽  
D.K. Yadav ◽  
Govind Kumar Yadav ◽  
Kuldeep Singh ◽  
...  

Background: Nitrogen and phosphorus are amongst fundamental macronutrients, which are crucial for the growth and development of plant. Soils of dry land of central Rajasthan are deficit in nitrogen and phosphorus content which leads to lower productivity of kasuri methi. Therefore, adequate supply of nitrogen (foliar spray) and phosphorus could enhance productivity of kasuri methi. Methods: The experiment consisted of sixteen treatment combinations including four levels of phosphorus (control, 20, 40 and 60 kg/ha) and four levels of foliar application of nitrogen (control, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%). They were under taken in FRBD with three replications. Result: Growth parameters and yield of fresh and dried leaves of the crop increased almost linearly with increasing levels of phosphorus and foliar application of nitrogen. The result indicated that application of phosphorus 60 kg/ha and foliar nitrogen @ 2.0% to the kasuri methi crop significantly increased the plant height (cm) and leaf area per plant (cm2) at each harvest, number of nodules per plant (58.17 and 53.33, respectively) and chlorophyll content (2.32 and 2.39 mg/100 g, respectively), fresh leaves yield (139.1 and 141.66 q/ha, respectively), dry leaves yield (20.01 and 22.38 q/ha, respectively), protein content in leaves (5.28 and 5.75%, respectively) and ascorbic acid in leaves (218.15 and 222.42 mg/100 g, respectively).


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lifu Deng ◽  
Olga Lucia Gamboa ◽  
Moritz Dannhauer ◽  
Anshu Jonnalagadda ◽  
Rena Hamdan ◽  
...  

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become an important technique in both scientific and clinical practices, and yet our understanding of how the brain responds to TMS is still limited. Concurrent neuroimaging during TMS may bridge this gap, and emerging evidence suggests widespread that modulatory effects of TMS may be best captured through changes in functional connectivity between distributed networks, rather than local changes in cortical activity. However, the relationship between TMS stimulation parameters and evoked changes in functional connectivity is unknown. In this study, 24 healthy volunteers received concurrent TMS-fMRI while performing a dot-motion direction discrimination task. An MR-compatible coil was used to apply trains of three pulses at 10 Hz rTMS over the primary visual cortex (V1) at the onset of the dot stimuli with four levels of stimulation intensity (20%, 40%, 80%, and 120% of resting motor threshold, RMT). Behavioral results demonstrated impairment of motion discrimination at 80% RMT. FMRI results yielded three findings. First, functional connectivity between visual and non-visual areas increased as a function of rTMS intensity. Second, connectivity within the visual network was positively associated with motion accuracy, while the connectivity between visual and non-visual regions was negatively associated with motion accuracy. Lastly, we found that reductions in the similarity between functional and structural connectivity associated with increasing TMS intensity were constrained to the visual network. These findings demonstrate spatially dependent nonlinear effects of TMS intensity on brain functional connectivity that proceed beyond the site of stimulation and influence associated behavior.


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