communication distance
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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Jaechul Lee ◽  
Cédric Killian ◽  
Sebastien Le Beux ◽  
Daniel Chillet

The energy consumption of manycore architectures is dominated by data movement, which calls for energy-efficient and high-bandwidth interconnects. To overcome the bandwidth limitation of electrical interconnects, integrated optics appear as a promising technology. However, it suffers from high power overhead related to low laser efficiency, which calls for the use of techniques and methods to improve its energy costs. Besides, approximate computing is emerging as an efficient method to reduce energy consumption and improve execution speed of embedded computing systems. It relies on allowing accuracy reduction on data at the cost of tolerable application output error. In this context, the work presented in this article exploits both features by defining approximate communications for error-tolerant applications. We propose a method to design realistic and scalable nanophotonic interconnect supporting approximate data transmission and power adaption according to the communication distance to improve the energy efficiency. For this purpose, the data can be sent by mixing low optical power signal and truncation for the Least Significant Bits (LSB) of the floating-point numbers, while the overall power is adapted according to the communication distance. We define two ranges of communications, short and long, which require only four power levels. This reduces area and power overhead to control the laser output power. A transmission model allows estimating the laser power according to the targeted BER and the number of truncated bits, while the optical network interface allows configuring, at runtime, the number of approximated and truncated bits and the laser output powers. We explore the energy efficiency provided by each communication scheme, and we investigate the error resilience of the benchmarks over several approximation and truncation schemes. The simulation results of ApproxBench applications show that, compared to an interconnect involving only robust communications, approximations in the optical transmission led to up to 53% laser power reduction with a limited degradation at the application level with less than 9% of output error. Finally, we show that our solution is scalable and leads to 10% reduction in the total energy consumption, 35× reduction in the laser driver size, and 10× reduction in the laser controller compared to state-of-the-art solution.

2022 ◽  
Nermeen Maged Okasha ◽  
AbdelHalem A. Zekry ◽  
Fatma A. Newagy

Abstract This paper combines the advantages of both VLC communication and RF communication for car-to-car applications to achieve a higher data rate, more range coverage, smaller delay, and smaller BER. In the proposed scheme, the VLC maximum communication distance is chosen as 100 m per-hop approximately, which can be extended through multi-hop up to the timeout window of 5 hops. In contrast, the RF maximum communication distance is chosen as 200 m per-hop approximately, which is reasonable at the frequency band of 70 GHz to 90 GHz due to the high attenuation at this frequency band. A MATLAB simulation for a car-to-car framework is built to demonstrate and compare the BER, throughput, and delay outcomes at a hybrid VLC and RF communication. Our results show that VLC can achieve up to four times of the RF throughput while maintaining low BER of 10-6 and small delay of 10-4 with respect to RF communication only.

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (12) ◽  
pp. 1691
Fan Jing ◽  
Weiqi Liu ◽  
Lingzhi Kong ◽  
Chen He

In the continuous variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI-QKD) protocol, both Alice and Bob send quantum states to an untrusted third party, Charlie, for detection through the quantum channel. In this paper, we mainly study the performance of the CV-MDI-QKD system using the noiseless linear amplifier (NLA). The NLA is added to the output of the detector at Charlie’s side. The research results show that NLA can increase the communication distance and secret key rate of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol. Moreover, we find that the more powerful the improvement of the performance with the longer gain of NLA and the optimum gain is given under different conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Ning Wang ◽  
Zhe Li ◽  
Xiaolong Liang ◽  
Ying Li ◽  
Feihu Zhao

This paper proposes a cooperative search algorithm to enable swarms of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to capture moving targets. It is based on prior information and target probability constrained by inter-UAV distance for safety and communication. First, a rasterized environmental cognitive map is created to characterize the task area. Second, based on Bayesian theory, the posterior probability of a target’s existence is updated using UAV detection information. Third, the predicted probability distribution of the dynamic time-sensitive target is obtained by calculating the target transition probability. Fourth, a customized information interaction mechanism switches the interaction strategy and content according to the communication distance to produce cooperative decision-making in the UAV swarm. Finally, rolling-time domain optimization generates interactive information, so interactive behavior and autonomous decision-making among the swarm members are realized. Simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm can effectively complete a cooperative moving-target search when constrained by communication distance yet still cooperate effectively in unexpected situations such as a fire.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Qiuying Yan ◽  
Wei Li ◽  
Jiacheng Li ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Shengyi Liu ◽  

To overcome the problem of data transmission of the aeroengine health management system, a multilink communication system combining ultrahigh-frequency communication link, 4G cellular mobile communication link, and BeiDou satellite communication link was proposed. This system can realize the functions such as data receiving and sending, data encryption, and resuming transfer from the break point based on multiple links. When the flight altitude is not high, the communication distance is short, so the UHF digital transmission radio communication link is adopted, which is highly efficient and stable. When the communication distance is long, the 4G cellular mobile communication link can ensure both the communication distance and the communication rate. In the area where 4G signal cannot be covered in extreme terrain environment, BeiDou satellite communication link is used for data transmission. Besides, in order to ensure the communication rate of the link, a multilink adaptive switching technology was also developed. The test verified that the system can perform adaptive switching among multiple links, realize air-ground data communication in the whole airspace, and achieve a good communication rate, which has significative value of engineering application.

2021 ◽  
Martin TCHOFFO ◽  
Alain Giresse TENE

Abstract This paper proposes a new quantum key distribution(QKD) protocol, namely the pseudo-random bases entangled photon based QKD (PRB-EPQKD) protocol. The latest mainly focuses on three properties, including the security of the protocol, the secure key size and the maximum communication distance between legitimate communication users (Alice and Bob). To achieve this, we first consider a spontaneous-parametric-down (SPDC) photon source located in a low-earth-orbit (LEO) type satellite capable of producing and distributing entangled photons pairs to Alice and Bob. Secondly, we assume that Alice's and Bob's photons state measurement bases are identically generated via a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG), namely the quantum logistic map (QLM). Finally, we also assume that in addition to their photons states, Alice and Bob intentionally share a set of decoy states at each pulse with randomly selected intensity, and with the goal to detect the presence of the eavesdropper (Eve). Under these considerations, the secure key rate upper bound is evaluated applying the Gottesman-Lo-Lutkenhaus-Preskill's (GLLP) formula, for two different implementations, namely the non-decoy states and the infinite active decoy states based QKD. It is observed a significant improvement in the secure key size and the communication distance as well, compared to existing protocols, since we realize that under daylight, downlinks satellite conditions, a kindly selected light source, and good crystal's properties, the maximum communication distance can reach up to 70000 km. In addition, using the combined type-I and type-II SPDC photons source as our entangled photons pairs generator, significantly improved the photon mean number and render our protocol more robust against photon number division attack and against attenuation-induced atmospheric propagation. Furthermore, the protocol is more secure as compared to existing ones, given that any eavesdropper must crack simultaneously the chaotic system used as PRNG and the QKD system, before getting any useful information as regards to the measurement bases used by Alice and Bob, and thus the secure key.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (13) ◽  
pp. 1521
Jingcheng Zhao ◽  
Xu Chao ◽  
Tao Hong ◽  
Peng Wang ◽  
Shuli Zheng

Today’s power systems are developing from traditional multi-sensor systems to ubiquitous power Internet of Things systems. The environmental backscatter technology makes communication equipment get rid of the dependence on power supply, is more energy-efficient, and effectively extends the communication distance, which is very suitable for power Internet of Things scenarios. Tag antenna is an important part of environmental backscattering, but it has problems such as low reliability and insufficient reading distance in the traditional power Internet of Things. In view of the above problems, this paper designs a double-antenna structure tag antenna, which adopts omnidirectional receiving and directional transmitting methods to achieve the purpose of comprehensive signal coverage for the power Internet of Things application scenarios. It has the characteristics of obvious gain, small side lobe, and strong anti-interference.

Complexity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Xiaona Zhang ◽  
Shufang Zhang ◽  
Shuaiheng Huai

In this article, we use a low-power iBeacon network to conduct an in-depth analysis and research on the principle of indoor positioning and adopt an efficient and fast positioning algorithm. Secondly, based on the obtained analysis, an iBeacon-based indoor positioning system is proposed to analyze how to use iBeacon for accurate positioning and whether it can effectively compensate for the current mainstream positioning system. We analyze the requirements of the iBeacon-based indoor positioning system and propose the design of this positioning system. We analyze the platform and environment for software development, design the general framework of the positioning system, and analyze the logical structure of the whole system, the structure of data flow, and the communication protocols between each module of the positioning system. Then, we analyze the functions of the server module and the client module of the system, implement the functions of each module separately, and debug the functions of each module separately after each module is implemented. The feasibility of the algorithm and the performance improvement are confirmed by the experimental data. Our results show that the communication distance is improved by approximately 20.25% and the accuracy is improved by 5.62% compared to other existing results.

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