The northern Bering and Chukchi seas are biologically productive regions but, recently, unprecedented environmental changes have been reported. For investigating the dominant phytoplankton communities and relative contribution of small phytoplankton (<2 µm) to the total primary production in the regions, field measurements mainly for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and size-specific primary productivity were conducted in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas during summer 2016 (ARA07B) and 2017 (OS040). Diatoms and phaeocystis were dominant phytoplankton communities in 2016 whereas diatoms and Prasinophytes (Type 2) were dominant in 2017 and diatoms were found as major contributors for the small phytoplankton groups. For size-specific primary production, small phytoplankton contributed 38.0% (SD = ±19.9%) in 2016 whereas 25.0% (SD = ±12.8%) in 2017 to the total primary productivity. The small phytoplankton contribution observed in 2016 is comparable to those reported previously in the Chukchi Sea whereas the contribution in 2017 mainly in the northern Bering Sea is considerably lower than those in other arctic regions. Different biochemical compositions were distinct between small and large phytoplankton in this study, which is consistent with previous results. Significantly higher carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents per unit of chlorophyll-a, whereas lower C:N ratios were characteristics in small phytoplankton in comparison to large phytoplankton. Given these results, we could conclude that small phytoplankton synthesize nitrogen-rich particulate organic carbon which could be easily regenerated.
AbstractMany marine organisms are exposed to decreasing O2 levels due to warming-induced expansion of hypoxic zones and ocean deoxygenation (DeO2). Nevertheless, effects of DeO2 on phytoplankton have been neglected due to technical bottlenecks on examining O2 effects on O2-producing organisms. Here we show that lowered O2 levels increased primary productivity of a coastal phytoplankton assemblage, and enhanced photosynthesis and growth in the coastal diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. Mechanistically, reduced O2 suppressed mitochondrial respiration and photorespiration of T. weissflogii, but increased the efficiency of their CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs), effective quantum yield and improved light use efficiency, which was apparent under both ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations leading to ocean acidification (OA). While the elevated CO2 treatment partially counteracted the effect of low O2 in terms of CCMs activity, reduced levels of O2 still strongly enhanced phytoplankton primary productivity. This implies that decreased availability of O2 with progressive DeO2 could boost re-oxygenation by diatom-dominated phytoplankton communities, especially in hypoxic areas, with potentially profound consequences for marine ecosystem services in coastal and pelagic oceans.
Carbon flux is the main basis for judging the carbon source/sink of forest ecosystems. Bamboo forests have gained much attention because of their high carbon sequestration capacity. In this study, we used a boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model to simulate the gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) of bamboo forests in China during 2001–2018, and then explored the spatiotemporal evolution of the carbon fluxes and their response to climatic factors. The results showed that: (1) The simulated and observed GPP values exhibited a good correlation with the determination coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and absolute bias (aBIAS) of 0.58, 1.43 g C m−2 day−1, and 1.21 g C m−2 day−1, respectively. (2) During 2001–2018, GPP and NPP showed fluctuating increasing trends with growth rates of 5.20 g C m−2 yr−1 and 3.88 g C m−2 yr−1, respectively. The spatial distribution characteristics of GPP and NPP were stronger in the south and east than in the north and west. Additionally, the trend slope results showed that GPP and NPP mainly increased, and approximately 30% of the area showed a significant increasing trend. (3) Our study showed that more than half of the area exhibited the fact that the influence of the average annual precipitation had positive effects on GPP and NPP, while the average annual minimum and maximum temperatures had negative effects on GPP and NPP. On a monthly scale, our study also demonstrated that the influence of precipitation on GPP and NPP was higher than that of the influence of temperature on them.
Net primary productivity (NPP) is a critical component in terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycles. Thus, quantitatively estimating and monitoring the dynamics of NPP have become key aspects for exploring the carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems. Anthropogenic activity, such as urbanization, has significant effects on NPP and increases pressure on the natural resources of a specific region. However, to date, although many studies have focused on the relationship between NPP variation and urbanization, they usually ignored any differences at a long-term spatiotemporal variation of urbanization factors, which led to the insufficient understanding of the urbanization-induced impacts on NPP. As a result, this study effectively explored the spatiotemporal variation of NPP from 2001 to 2012 and its corresponding relationship with urbanization, taking the Hubei Province in China as a case study area. To clarify the degree of urbanization, the spatial distribution and temporal variation of population and gross domestic product (GDP) were simulated based on the elevation-adjusted human settlement index and nighttime lights data. The major results showed that high NPP areas were located in those highlands with widespread woodland, in which the NPP value continued to grow during the period. The low NPP areas were mainly distributed in urban areas, and the NPP value had a continued and visible loss. The population and GDP both had a strong correlation with NPP. The significant negative correlation was concentrated in the center of Hubei, with a dense population and developed economy. In order to further realize their complex relationship, the correlation coefficients between the annual NPP and the two factors from 2001 to 2012 were calculated, and the changing trends were investigated. Overall, the findings of this study may provide a reference for studies on the interaction between ecological environment and socioeconomic processes under the background of global rapid urbanization.
The contradiction between urban expansion and ecological protection in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH) is increasingly acute, which has become one of the main problems restricting regional development, and sustainable development of ecosystem services is the key to increasing human well-being. Based on GIS platform and multiple models, this paper analyzes the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of four key ecosystem services (water conservation, soil conservation, habitat quality, and plant net primary productivity) in different ecological regions of BTH in recent 20 years, quantifies the impact of different climate factors and land use change on ecosystem services (ESs), and discusses the primary ecosystem hotspots and ecological security pattern. The results showed that the interannual variation of water conservation (WC) and plant net primary productivity (NPP) increased from 2000 to 2020, while the change of soil conservation (SC) was not obvious, which was mainly controlled by climate factors, WC and SC were more affected by precipitation, and temperature was the key factor affecting NPP. Habitat quality (HQ) presented a significant downward trend; it was mainly attributed to the deterioration of ecological environment caused by accelerated urbanization expansion. According to hotspot analysis, it could be found that WC was the fastest-growing ecosystem service function in BTH, and NPP would become the factor with the greatest contribution to ecological importance in the future. The important protected areas and main ecological sources of ecological security pattern were mainly distributed in Yanshan-Taihang mountain area, which was consistent with the key areas of ecosystem services. In this study, the temporal and spatial differences of ecosystem service in BTH were demonstrated in a more intuitive way and provided scientific guidance for decision makers to formulate effective ecological protection policies in different regions.