Financial Constraints
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Shu Hui Ng

AbstractMalaysia hosts a significant number of refugees, asylum-seekers and migrant workers. Healthcare access for these individuals has always proved a challenge: language barriers, financial constraints and mobility restrictions are some of the frequently cited hurdles. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated these existing inequalities, with migrants and refugees bearing the brunt of chronic systemic injustices. Providing equitable healthcare access for all, regardless of their citizenship and social status remains an ethical challenge for healthcare providers, particularly within the framework of a resource-limited healthcare system. Inclusive healthcare and socio-economic policies are necessary to ensure every individual’s equal opportunity to attain good health. The collective experiences of refugees and migrants in the pursuit of healthcare, as highlighted by the two cases described, showcases the importance of equity in healthcare access and the detrimental implications of non-inclusive healthcare and socio-economic policies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Benlu Hai ◽  
Ximing Yin ◽  
Jie Xiong ◽  
Jin Chen

AbstractInnovation scholars highlight the economic benefits to firms, while research findings on the relationship between innovation output and economic returns remain mixed. In this study, we develop the profiting from innovation (PFI) framework and address the crucial role of financial constraints in the relationship between innovation output and financial performance. We argue that the liability of newness differentiates firms’ financial performance during the commercialization of innovation, leading to a U-shaped relationship between firms’ innovation output and financial performance. We further document the moderating impact of individual financial constraints (IFC) and market-based financial constraints (MFC) on this curvilinear relationship. Empirical tests based on the 142,972 firm-year observations of the multi-source dataset of Chinese manufacturing firms from 1999–2009 support our hypotheses. The additional analysis shows that non-state-owned enterprises and small and medium enterprises benefit more from the synergistic effect of reductions of IFC and MFC than state-owned enterprises and large firms. Our study enriches the literature of the PFI framework by uncovering the mechanism between innovation output and economic returns where financial constraints play an essential role. To the best of our knowledge, we are among the first to investigate the processes and mechanisms between innovation output and financial performance, generating novel insights for business practitioners and policymakers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Chengyin Huang ◽  
Ying Chen

This study aims to explore the driving factors of green innovation, and uses the micro- and macro-data from China’s sports goods manufacturing industries. In particularly, sports goods manufacturing enterprises are identified by the textual analysis of information disclosure, and the competitive environment faced by each enterprise is built through their unique closest rivals. Empirically, this study finds that competition and policy can promote green innovation in sports goods manufacturing industries, and industrial policy can moderate the role of product market competition in promoting green innovation. Considering the characteristics of the Chinese market, more industrial policies may intensify the competition among manufacturing enterprises, forcing such enterprises to obtain competitive advantages through innovation outcomes. It is worth noting that the association between product market competition and green innovation changes as financial constraints increase, and this may be caused by the impact of industrial policy on the interactions among enterprises. After implementing the strict environmental policy, product market competition and industrial policy can both promote green innovation. In high-polluting industries, sports goods manufacturing enterprises get more social attention and suffer from higher penalties for environmental violations, so that such enterprises will get more motivations from industrial policies to support green innovation. In addition, we also find that there is a significant inverted-U shape relationship between industrial policy and green innovation in sports goods manufacturing industries. As financial constraints increase, the non-linear relationship between product market competition and green innovation converts from a U shape relationship to an inverted-U shape relationship. Our findings can provide a better understanding of the investment of sports goods manufacturing enterprises in green innovation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 250-272
Romeo Asa

Over the years, the superlative contribution of SMEs on economic growth predominantly in emerging states such as Namibia has been gaining considerable prestige at a rapid rate. However, deficient access to cost-effective financial adequacy remains a leading stumbling block that denies them the opportunity to survive in a competitive market, grow and develop above the average. That being true, the rate of SMEs’ failure continues to escalate precisely among those that are in their early stage of operation. To curb that specific issue, microfinance institutions (MFIs) intervene to provide dual supports through the delivery of financial and non-financial services. Access to such support helps SMEs to reduce their financial constraints, resulting in sound and viable development for businesses. In this respect, the central objective of this study was to investigate the impact of microfinance acquisition on SMEs’ development with reference to the manufacturing firms in Windhoek, Namibia. Evenly relevant, the study sought to further assess the effect of acquired microfinance support on competitiveness and finally devise suitable strategies that MFIs could adopt or adapt to improve the provision of microfinance services to penurious SMEs. The study employed a pragmatistic paradigm. Therefore, mixed research methods constituting both quantitative and qualitative approaches were utilised to successfully attain the threefold objectives of the study. 60 questionnaires were disseminated through emails to the sampled SMEs for data collection where only 44, accounted for 73% were considered for further analysis. Regarding financial support, the study assessed the matter based on technology enhancement, assets capital accumulation, job creation, business’ branches extension, and product development and expansion. Similarly, assessment on non-financial support was focused on managerial and leadership skills, as well as unblemished financial management. To test the nexus between microfinance support and SMEs’ development, multiple regression analysis was employed at 5% level of significance. Findings presented by the study revealed a positive strong relationship between the variables. More to that, the correlation between microfinance support and SMEs’ competitiveness was tested using correlation coefficient analysis and results found the variable to be statistically correlated. To this end, the study affirms that there exists a significant positive impact of microfinance support on SMEs’ development and competitiveness, implying that healthy and ample microfinance institutions are immensely essential to provide the required support lucratively, using the most satisfying strategies for a mutual benefit of the involved parties. Therefore, three strategies for improving the provision of microfinance support, constituting Public Credit Guarantee Schemes (PCGS); compensation of interest rate with the repayment period; and the provision of tools and equipment were designed. Also, the study recommended government intervention in formulating policies necessary for easing collateral requirements. More, MFIs are also advised to find ways for fastening their evaluation processes and give feedback on approval or disapproval of the application soon. They should also allow potential SMEs to borrow multiple times in a year or increase the principal amount. Finally, the study suggested future studies to focus on the role of the government in addressing SMEs’ financial constraints and use a longitudinal approach with a predominant focus on other sectors.  

Owner ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 386-399
Melina Fajrin Utami ◽  
Ferry Irawan

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of thin capitalization, transfer pricing aggressiveness on tax avoidance with financial constraints as moderating variable. This study used a quantitative approach with population with sample of manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2016 to 2019. The sampling technique used purposive sampling and obtained 72 companies as samples. This study used panel data and the analysis was multiple linear regression and interaction regression. The results show that thin capitalization, transfer pricing aggressiveness, and financial constraints have a positive effect on tax avoidance. Further research shows that financial constraints strengthen the effect of thin capitalization on tax avoidance, but financial constraints do not moderate the effect of transfer pricing aggressiveness on tax avoidance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 60-82
J. Scott Davis ◽  
Michael B. Devereux

Capital controls may be justified as a policy to combat a financial crisis. But for large economies, capital controls may have substantial spillovers to the rest of the world. We investigate the case for capital controls in a large open economy, when domestic financial constraints may bind during a crisis. When the crisis country is indebted, it must trade off the desire to tax inflows to improve the terms of trade and tax outflows to ease financial constraints. This trade-off renders noncooperative use of capital controls ineffective as crisis management policy. Effective use of capital controls for crisis management requires international cooperation. (JEL F23, F38, F41, G01, H21, H25)

2022 ◽  
pp. 228-248
Hasan Tekin

This chapter investigates how financial constraints and financial crises affect the cash policy of firms. Using a sample of 157,505 firm-years from 26 developing Asian economies from 1991 to 2016, firm fixed effects are employed to mitigate unobserved heterogeneity. Empirical findings show that financially constrained firms have higher cash than financially unconstrained firms, which is in line with the precautionary motive and transaction motive of cash. The picture changes with the rise of financial crises. While financially constrained firms have lower cash before the 1997-1998 Asian financial crisis, they increase their cash level more after the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. Overall, managers need to consider the exogenous shocks to enhance their liquidity management. Also, investors should consider the financial crises, firm size, firm constraint, and dividend payment status when determining when and where to invest.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Nicolas Aubert ◽  
Miguel Cordova

In this chapter, the authors argue that far from the shocking decision of firing employees to leverage their short-term liquidity, organizations may draw other innovative options such as giving company shares to their employees. Employee stock ownership (ESO) plans have the potential to secure financial liquidity for firms while simultaneously providing social inclusion as well as empowerment to people, relating their efforts directly to firms' performance and driving the economic system into a shared capitalism. However, while companies may be solving their financial constraints through ESO, the authors identified a trade-off related to the traditional position of hegemony of firms. They argue that the decision to share the risk through paying wages using firms' stock options derives in a progressive detriment of power and control that some organizations would not be willing to suffer.

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