causality relationship
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yüksel Akay Ünvan ◽  
Ulviyya Nahmatli

Export promotion tools aim to increase exports and support the entrepreneur in reaching new foreign markets. The positive impact of incentives, especially on financial issues, on exports both before and after shipment is undeniable. Founded in 1987, Turkish Exim bank is Turkey’s official export credit institution. By observing macro-economic balances, Exim bank ensures that exporters, export-oriented production manufacturers and entrepreneurs operating abroad are supported by credit, guarantee and insurance programs to increase their competitiveness. The study aims to examine the causal relationship between imports, exports and Exim bank loans in the Turkish economy. In the study, stationarity with the extended Dickey-Fuller unit root test, long-term relationship with the Johansen co-integration test, and then causality with the Granger test were investigated. The causality relationship was analyzed using import, export and Eximbank loans data for the periods 2003–2020.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (9) ◽  
pp. 854-861
Author(s):  
Fajrin Nur Hidayah ◽  
Grisvia Agustin

Abstract The purpose of this research is to investigate causal relationship between financial literacy and financial behavior, financial behavior and financial satisfaction, and between financial literacy and financial satisfaction. The analysis technique used was Granger Causality analysis. The research data was obtained using questionnaire distributed to 100 respondents. The repondents are Indonesian citizens in productive age (15-64 years). The results show a one-way causality between financial literacy and financial behavior, between financial behavior and financial satisfaction, but there is no causality relationship (independence) between financial literacy and financial satisfaction. Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan sebab akibat dari literasi finansial dan perilaku finansial, perilaku finansial dan kepuasan finansial, serta antara literasi finansial dan kepuasan finansial. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah analisa Granger Causality. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakn kuesioner yang dibagikan kepada 100 responden. Para responden adalah warga Indonesia berusia produktif (15-64) tahun. Hasil yang didapatkan menunjukkan adanya hubungan sebab akibat antara literasi finansial dengan perilaku financial, serta antara perilaku finansial dankepuasan finansial. Sementara hubungan antar literasi finansial dan kepuasan finansial tidak ditemukan.


2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 7-21
Author(s):  
Tuncer Govdeli ◽  
Esra Karakuş Umar

The role of the state within the neoliberal system is discussed in the approaches developed for social expenditures. Accordingly, the question of whether the state should stand back or provide the support needed by individuals has shaped the literaturę on social expenditures. It is thought that the increase in social expenditures affects public expenditures, and public expenditures may indirectly cause budget deficits. In addition, it is said that there is a decrease in social spending during periods of economic growth. All these dilemmas show that the idea that the country needs both producers and consumers while realizing economic growth has been pushed into the background. Here, the analyses of the relationship between social spending and economic growth are the arguments for the accuracy of this assumption. The aim of this study is to empirically analyze the long-term relationship between the economic growth and social expenditures of eight Central European countries and the causality relationship for 1999 and 2019. In the empirical findings, the cointegration relationship was determined between economic growth and social spending. Based on the findings of the causality analysis, it has been concluded that there is a bidirectional causality relationship between economic growth and social expenditures. Policy proposals are given in the conclusion section of the article.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 24-40
Author(s):  
Yakup Soylemez

The aim of this study is to determine the causality relationship between energy prices, which are among the most important inputs of the economy, and selected stock market indices of developed countries. Crude oil and natural gas are used as energy variables. G7 countries were selected to represent developed countries. Stock indices used in the study are Dow & Jones (USA), DAX (Germany), CAC40 (France), FTSE250 (England), FTSE Italia All Share (Italy), NIKKEI225 (Japan), and S&P/TSX (Canada). In the study, Johansen (1988) cointegration test and Granger (1969) causality test were used to analyse the causality relationship between energy prices and selected stock market indices. The research could not find a long-term balance relationship between energy prices and developed country indices. Also, while the causality relationship was determined between crude oil prices and NIKKEI225, DAX, and CAC40 indices, a causal relationship between natural gas prices and Dow & Jones and FTSE250 indices was determined. In the study, it was found that energy prices can be used for diversification in investments to be made with stock market indices of developed countries. This study is one of the most comprehensive studies in the literature that examines the relationship between energy prices and the stock market indices of G7 countries. It is expected to contribute to the literature in this way.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 5876
Author(s):  
Francesco Sessa ◽  
Monica Salerno ◽  
Massimiliano Esposito ◽  
Nunzio Di Nunno ◽  
Paolo Zamboni ◽  
...  

The current challenge worldwide is the administration of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine. Considering that the COVID-19 vaccination represents the best possibility to resolve this pandemic, this systematic review aims to clarify the major aspects of fatal adverse effects related to COVID-19 vaccines, with the goal of advancing our knowledge, supporting decisions, or suggesting changes in policies at local, regional, and global levels. Moreover, this review aims to provide key recommendations to improve awareness of vaccine safety. All studies published up to 2 December 2021 were searched using the following keywords: “COVID-19 Vaccine”, “SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine”, “COVID-19 Vaccination”, “SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination”, and “Autopsy” or “Post-mortem”. We included 17 papers published with fatal cases with post-mortem investigations. A total of 38 cases were analyzed: 22 cases were related to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 administration, 10 cases to BNT162b2, 4 cases to mRNA-1273, and 2 cases to Ad26.COV2.S. Based on these data, autopsy is very useful to define the main characteristics of the so-called vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination: recurrent findings were intracranial hemorrhage and diffused microthrombi located in multiple areas. Moreover, it is fundamental to provide evidence about myocarditis related to the BNT162B2 vaccine. Finally, based on the discussed data, we suggest several key recommendations to improve awareness of vaccine safety.


Author(s):  
Cengiz Yılmaz ◽  
Banu Demirhan

This paper has investigated the causality relationship between financial development and economic growth in Turkey, using data from 2005:04 to 2020:03. We construct a time-series model to explore causality relationships between the variables. In the study, two indicators were used as financial development indicators: banking loans to the private sector and money supply to GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The empirical results have represented a bi-directional relationship between financial development and economic growth in the short run. On the other hand, we have not found a causality relationship in the long term.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 115-122
Author(s):  
Rini Dwi Astuti ◽  
Purwiyanta Purwiyanta

The rapid development of information technology has made economic digitization a necessity throughout the world, including Southeast Asia. This study aims to analyze the effect of economic digitization on financial inclusion and international trade using the Vector Autoregression Model analysis tool for ten countries in ASEAN for the 2017-2019 period. The results showed that international trade and financial inclusion variables could respond quickly to shocks in the variable of economic digitization. Economic growth can respond quickly to shocks in global trade variables and financial inclusion variables. There is no causal relationship between economic growth and international trade. However, there is a one-way causality relationship between economic growth and financial inclusion, where inclusion affects economic growth but not vice versa.


2021 ◽  
pp. 107815522110391
Author(s):  
Jaspreet Kaur ◽  
Shahaf Tuler ◽  
Constantin A Dasanu

Introduction Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have become the mainstay of treatment for many malignancies, but their use can be accompanied by unusual and often puzzling side effects. Case report We describe herein a 64-year-old patient who developed a robust and sustained erythrocytosis shortly after starting treatment with lenvatinib. Our patient also experienced elevated blood pressure, mucositis, and hand-foot syndrome that are not uncommonly seen with this agent. The clinico-laboratory work-up suggested that lenvatinib was the likely culprit in this case. Management & Outcome Lenvatinib had to be discontinued due to suboptimal tolerance and a short-lived response. With the discontinuation of lenvatinib, hemoglobin trended downwards and subsequently resolved. A score of 6 on the Naranjo nomogram supported a probable causality relationship between lenvatinib and the observed erythrocytosis. Discussion Erythrocytosis has previously been described with sunitinub, sorafenib and pazopanib. The exact mechanism of this phenomenon is not known. It might increase the risk of venous and arterial thromboses in cancer patients that are already in a hypercoagulable state due to cancer itself. In addition, laboratory work-up for polycythemia may prove extensive and costly. Therefore, clinicians need to be aware of this important side effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.


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