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Hiba Khan

Abstract: India has done a very much towards to become a developed country but still India is a part of developing countries and for this reason most of the factors are responsible and from these one of the factor is poverty and their index. Poverty index, directly affect the standard of living in a population , that why various major and minor diseases are occur in the various age groups of people, and Hypermetropia is one of these that can occur due to unhealthy life style. Hyperopia, also termed hypermetropia or farsightedness, is a common refractive error in children and adults. Its effect on an individual and the symptoms produced varies greatly, depending on the magnitude of hyperopia, the age of the individual, the status of the accommodative and convergence system, and the demands placed on the visual system. Individuals with uncorrected hyperopia may experience symptoms such as blurred vision, asthenopia (e.g., headaches and eyestrain) while reading, accommodative/binocular dysfunction, amblyopia, and/or strabismus. This article outlines several discussion points as related to hyperopia: definition and classifications, prevention, clinical presentations, importance of early detection, examination techniques, risks of uncorrected hyperopia, and management strategies. Keywords: Amblyopia, Hyperopia, Refractive error, Strabismus, Visual development.

Logistics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
João M. Lopes ◽  
Sofia Gomes ◽  
Lassana Mané

The constraints imposed by the pandemic COVID-19 increased the risks of the disruption of supply chains, bringing new challenges to companies. These effects were felt more intensely in less-developed countries, which are highly dependent on imports of products and raw materials. This study aims to assess the impact of supply chain resilience in a less-developed country (Guinea-Bissau) using complex adaptive system theory. We used a qualitative methodology through multiple case studies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four companies. The semi-structured script contains questions about supply chain disruptions, vulnerabilities and resilience. The main results show that the companies in Guinea-Bissau, due to their dependence on the outside world and the absence of formal, larger and more diversified supply chains, suffered serious consequences with the disruption imposed by the pandemic. It was also concluded that the more resilient the supply chain, the fewer the impacts of crisis events and that the resilience of companies at this level depends on their obtaining competitive advantages over their competitors. The main practical implications of this study are the need to formalize the supply chain, diversify the supply of services and products of companies dependent on the exterior, adopt metrics that allow for the early detection of situations of supply chain disruption, effectively manage stocks and promote proactive crisis resolution strategies. Studies on the impact of resilience on supply chains in crises are scarce, especially on companies located in underdeveloped countries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 10-23
Thanapum Limsiritong ◽  
Tomoyuki Furutani ◽  
Karnjira Limsiritong

Nationality decision making could impact immensely to country structural, society issues, and future population. Exploring the factors and model prediction could dramatical give benefits to Thailand-Japan or as a reference to other countries toward possibility of multiracial nationality decision making, policy approach to future population and international labor management. The case study of Thai-Japanese multiracial nationality decision making could crucial explain to 4 scenarioses under developing and developed country status contexts. The objectives in this exploratory basic factors research are (1) To study the possibility factors of multiracial decision making (2) To adjust the factors impact on multiracial decision making into a model prediction (3) To assess a model in separation of developing and developed country context toward multiracial decision making. This research conduted N=685 of multinaitonality Thai-Japanese in Bangkok (Thailand) under criteria control throught statistic processes requirement, questionnaire survey conducted in purposive sampling via online at Bangkok as the biggest majority province of Japanese migrant in Thailand (Thailand-Japan embassy,2019). PLS-SEM was considered to assess a formative measurement from lower to higher order and mediation model of macro, meso, and micro levels by using SMART-PLS 3.0. The results indicate that Thailand macro level should concern about “Political and governance”, and “Hospital and wellness” factors, Japan macro level should consider to “Economic”, and “Working environment” factors. Also, Thailand meso level have more issue on development factors than Japan, afterward meso factor as an individual background and experience reports that education and passport competency support to multiracial nationality decision making to both Thailand and Japan. As a result, Thailand macro, meso, and micro structure presents to the unrelevance between macro, meso, and micro which causes to unsupport of nationality decision making meanwhile Japan has a potential to escalate a policy toward macro and meso in better positive way with a significant support between macro, meso, and micro structure both direct and indirect to multiracial natonality decision making.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 285
José M. Alonso-Calero ◽  
Josefa Cano ◽  
M. Olga Guerrero-Pérez

Nowadays, the majority of citizens are subjected to a great deal of (dis)information organized by marketing campaigns or by groups with political interests that indiscriminately abuse concepts such as sustainability, either bio or organic. One of the objectives of formal education in any developed country should be to transmit enough formal (scientific) knowledge about processes and products (related to chemistry, biology, economics, and mathematics) so that citizens can adequately reflect on what is really sustainable and what is not, and also to be able to evaluate the environmental impact of any process. In the first part of this work, we describe the results of a survey that has been carried out in order to assess whether citizens make decisions based on marketing campaigns or based on formal knowledge. It is analyzed if those that have followed STEM studies differ from the rest. In the second part, we propose an activity to be done, in a multidisciplinary approach, by students from both fine arts and engineering, with the objective of consolidating and putting into practice the formal knowledge they have acquired to adequately evaluate the sustainability of a process.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sotirios Bisdas ◽  
Constantin-Cristian Topriceanu ◽  
Zosia Zakrzewska ◽  
Alexandra-Valentina Irimia ◽  
Loizos Shakallis ◽  

Background: The emerging field of artificial intelligence (AI) will probably affect the practice for the next generation of doctors. However, the students' views on AI have not been largely investigated.Methods: An anonymous electronic survey on AI was designed for medical and dental students to explore: (1) sources of information about AI, (2) AI applications and concerns, (3) AI status as a topic in medicine, and (4) students' feelings and attitudes. The questionnaire was advertised on social media platforms in 2020. Security measures were employed to prevent fraudulent responses. Mann-Whitney U-test was employed for all comparisons. A sensitivity analysis was also performed by binarizing responses to express disagreement and agreement using the Chi-squared test.Results: Three thousand one hundred thirty-three respondents from 63 countries from all continents were included. Most respondents reported having at least a moderate understanding of the technologies underpinning AI and of their current application, with higher agreement associated with being male (p < 0.0001), tech-savvy (p < 0.0001), pre-clinical student (p < 0.006), and from a developed country (p < 0.04). Students perceive AI as a partner rather than a competitor (72.2%) with a higher agreement for medical students (p = 0.002). The belief that AI will revolutionize medicine and dentistry (83.9%) with greater agreement for students from a developed country (p = 0.0004) was noted. Most students agree that the AI developments will make medicine and dentistry more exciting (69.9%), that AI shall be part of the medical training (85.6%) and they are eager to incorporate AI in their future practice (99%).Conclusion: Currently, AI is a hot topic in medicine and dentistry. Students have a basic understanding of AI principles, a positive attitude toward AI and would like to have it incorporated into their training.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 584-596
Nurman Ferdiana ◽  
Muhammad Iqbal Fasa ◽  
A. Kumedi Ja’far

In the world of Indonesian state finance, there are many types and varieties of financial products in circulation. As a society with the 4th largest population in the world, Indonesia is a very lucrative market share. This is often the main discussion in international organizations where Indonesia as a developing country is heading to a developed country. One product that is in great demand from year to year is retail sukuk. There are 15 Retail Sukuk products called Retail Sukuk 015. The products offered by the Indonesian government are very profitable on a certain scale. Where Retail Sukuk (retail sukuk) are a Sharia investment product offered by the government to individual Indonesian citizens. The management presented by Retail Sukuk must be based on Sharia principles, avoiding the elements of maysir (gambling), gharar (obscurity) and no usury (usury). The concept offered has also received a guarantee from the DSN MUI so that the contract used to issue Retail Sukuk is Ijarah-Asset to be leased. The existing capital turnover was developed for investment activities to purchase benefit rights to State Property leased by the government to procurement projects (project businesses). So the rewards are clearly taken or shared from the profits from the investment activities. To add to the clarity of how these benefits are obtained, it is described through 8 (eight) investment benefits issued by the Ministry of Finance as an extension of the Indonesian government. Therefore, the Government has a definite goal where the issuance of retail sukuk is to help finance the APBN and finance the development of various infrastructures in Indonesia. Keywords: Retail Sukuk, Sharia, Investment

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 24-40
Yakup Soylemez

The aim of this study is to determine the causality relationship between energy prices, which are among the most important inputs of the economy, and selected stock market indices of developed countries. Crude oil and natural gas are used as energy variables. G7 countries were selected to represent developed countries. Stock indices used in the study are Dow & Jones (USA), DAX (Germany), CAC40 (France), FTSE250 (England), FTSE Italia All Share (Italy), NIKKEI225 (Japan), and S&P/TSX (Canada). In the study, Johansen (1988) cointegration test and Granger (1969) causality test were used to analyse the causality relationship between energy prices and selected stock market indices. The research could not find a long-term balance relationship between energy prices and developed country indices. Also, while the causality relationship was determined between crude oil prices and NIKKEI225, DAX, and CAC40 indices, a causal relationship between natural gas prices and Dow & Jones and FTSE250 indices was determined. In the study, it was found that energy prices can be used for diversification in investments to be made with stock market indices of developed countries. This study is one of the most comprehensive studies in the literature that examines the relationship between energy prices and the stock market indices of G7 countries. It is expected to contribute to the literature in this way.

Samileh Noorbakhsh ◽  
Mohammad Vafaee-Shahi ◽  
Leila Tahernia ◽  
Sarvenaz Ashouri ◽  
Aina Riahi

Background: A safe and effective rubella vaccine is available and prescribed in IRAN. Objective: This is a survey of CRS cases collected based on WHO criteria one decade after MR vaccination campaign (2003) Methods: This Multi-stage prospective/cross-sectional study was carried out in three stages in 3 educational hospitals in Tehran (Rasoul Aram, Akbar Abadi and Firoozabadi), In the first stage of study between 2011 and 2012 total 186 infants were evaluated and in the second stage of study, total 163 blood samples of infants with suspected INTRA UTERINE INFECTION were compared with a group of healthy matched infants. In the first and second stages, Rubella immunity (IgG&IgM) in cord blood was evaluated by Eliza method. Results: Despite MR vaccination in Iran, after one decade"confirmed CRS" and " compatible CRS" were diagnosed in 5 and 31 from 89 CRS suspected cases. Conclusion: The incidence of "confirmed CRS" in every 100 CRS suspected infants (after campaign) is 5.6 %;and 31 CRS Compatible cases are so important. Without active CRS surveillance, mild infection such as IUGR, hearing loss,heart abnormalities, impaired vision, and mental retardation even in the developed country might be missed. Fetal infection is persistent, which imposes additional costs on the country.Another mass vaccination in women and girls is needed. Also, the anti-rubella IgG testing before pregnancy in women who were not vaccinated; vaccination of women before marriage /pregnancy should be obligatory in order to prevent the CRS.

2021 ◽  
pp. 9-21

This article examines the issue of such a phenomenon as “ambivalence”, which is a modern negative phenomenon in the functioning of public authorities, as well as a corresponding obstacle in the development of Ukraine as a democratic, economically developed country that seeks to join the cohort of developed countries in Europe. The reasons for the occurrence of this phenomenon are analyzed and specific examples are given in the modern life of the Ukrainian society. Conclusions are made about the ways to overcome this negative phenomenon.

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