signal processing techniques
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Wissam Dehina ◽  
Mohamed Boumehraz ◽  
Wissam Dehina ◽  
Frédéric Kratz

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose applications of advanced signal-processing techniques for the diagnosis and detection of rotor fault in an induction machine. Two techniques are used: spectral analysis techniques and time frequency techniques for the diagnosis of an electrical machine. One is based on the power spectral density estimation techniques, such as periodogram and Welch periodogram. The second method is based on Hilbert transform (HT) to extract the envelope for the stator current. Then, this signal is processed via discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for determining the faulty components in the spectrum of the stator current envelope and identifying the eigenvalues of energies (HDWT). Design/methodology/approach First, this paper focused on theoretical development and a comparative study of these signal-processing techniques, which are based on the periodogram, Welch periodogram, HT and the DWT to extract the envelope for the stator current; it is used to compute the energy stored in each decomposition level obtained by the stator current envelope (HDWT). Moreover, the Welch periodogram is applied to obtain the envelope spectrum. Findings The simulation obtained and the experimental validation results of the proposed methods through MATLAB environment show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches with a good accuracy by power spectral density estimation techniques (periodogram and Welch periodogram). Moreover, the faults are manifested through the appearance of new frequencies components, as well as the envelope for the stator current (HT and DWT). This approach is effective for non-stationary and stationary signal to extract useful information for the detection of broken bar fault. Originality/value The current paper proposes a new diagnosis method for the detection and characterization of broken rotor bars defects early; it is founded primarily on theoretical development, and the comparison is based on the power spectral density technique (periodogram and Welch periodogram) and the computation of the energy stored in each decomposition level (precisely the HT and DWT). Moreover, the Welch periodogram is applied to obtain the envelope spectrum. The main advantages of the proposed techniques increase their reliability and availability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (01) ◽  
pp. P01002
L. Polson ◽  
L. Kurchaninov ◽  
M. Lefebvre

Abstract The liquid argon ionization current in a sampling calorimeter cell can be analyzed to determine the energy of detected particles. In practice, experimental artifacts such as pileup and electronic noise make the inference of energy from current a difficult process. The beam intensity of the Large Hadron Collider will be significantly increased during the Phase-II long shut-down of 2025–2027. Signal processing techniques that are used to extract the energy of detected particles in the ATLAS detector will suffer a significant loss in performance under these conditions. This paper compares the presently used optimal filter technique to convolutional neural networks for energy reconstruction in the ATLAS liquid argon hadronic end cap calorimeter. In particular, it is shown that convolutional neural networks trained with an appropriately tuned and novel loss function are able to outperform the optimal filter technique.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 12168
Yoonjae Chung ◽  
Seungju Lee ◽  
Wontae Kim

Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a broad group of testing and analysis techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of a material, structure, or system for characteristic defects and discontinuities without causing damage. Recently, infrared thermography is one of the most promising technologies as it can inspect a large area quickly using a non-contact and non-destructive method. Moreover, thermography testing has proved to be a valuable approach for non-destructive testing and evaluation of structural stability of materials. Pulsed thermography is one of the active thermography technologies that utilizes external energy heating. However, due to the non-uniform heating, lateral heat diffusion, environmental noise, and limited parameters of the thermal imaging system, there are some difficulties in detecting and characterizing defects. In order to improve this limitation, various signal processing techniques have been developed through many previous studies. This review presents the latest advances and exhaustive summary of representative signal processing techniques used in pulsed thermography according to physical principles and thermal excitation sources. First, the basic concept of infrared thermography non-destructive testing is introduced. Next, the principle of conventional pulsed thermography and signal processing technologies for non-destructive testing are reviewed. Then, we review advances and recent advances in each signal processing. Finally, the latest research trends are reviewed.

2021 ◽  
Mohammed Al-SAAD ◽  
MOHAMMED Al-Mosallam ◽  
Ahmed Alsahlani

Abstract The common mechanical defect of rotating machinery is bearing failure which is considered the most common failure mode in rotating machinery. This kind of failure can lead to large losses as financial during work. Early detection of different faults in rotating machines such as bearing fault, misalignment, and others is considered one of the techniques in which is achieved by further signal processing techniques. Thus, using statistical methods such as reverse arrangement tests (RAT) to obtain the best a feature associated with these different faults is the perfect solution to find the failure which is widespread in the early detection of a fault. This type of feature will be used in Artificial Neural networks (ANN) as input for auto diagnosis. These characteristics are independently associated with different types of fault. Using RAT is considered very important in the process of linking different kinds of failures with the most important features.

Saeid Yazdanpanah ◽  
Mohammad Kheyrandish ◽  
Mohammad Mosleh

Wide utilization of audio files has attracted the attention of cyber-criminals to employ this media as a cover for their concealed communications. As a countermeasure and to protect cyberspace, several techniques have been introduced for steganalysis of various audio formats, such as MP3, VoIP, etc. The combination of machine learning and signal processing techniques has helped steganalyzers to obtain higher accuracies. However, as the statistical characteristics of a normal audio file differ from the speech ones, the current methods cannot discriminate clean and stego speech instances efficiently. Another problem is the high numbers of extracted features and analysis dimensions that drastically increase the implementation cost. To tackle these, this paper proposes the Percent of Equal Adjacent Samples (PEAS) feature for single-dimension least-significant-bit replacement (LSBR) speech steganalysis. The model first classifies the samples into speech and silence groups according to a threshold which has been determined through extensive experiments. It then uses an MLP classifier to detect stego instances and determine the embedding ratio. PEAS steganalysis detects 99.8% of stego instances in the lowest analyzed embedding ratio — 12.5% — and its sensitivity increases to 100% for the ratios of 37.5% and above.

2021 ◽  
Lei Ding ◽  
Guofa Shou ◽  
Yoon-Hee Cha ◽  
John A. Sweeney ◽  
Han Yuan

AbstractSpontaneous neural activity in human as assessed with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) exhibits brain-wide coordinated patterns in the frequency of <0.1Hz. However, fast brain-wide networks at the timescales of neuronal events (milliseconds to sub-seconds) and their spatial, spectral, and propagational characteristics remain unclear due to the temporal constraints of hemodynamic signals. With milli-second resolution and whole-head coverage, scalp-based electroencephalography (EEG) provides a unique window into brain-wide networks with neuronal-timescale dynamics, shedding light on the organizing principles of brain function. Using state-of-the-art signal processing techniques, we reconstructed cortical neural tomography from resting-state EEG and extracted component-based co-activation patterns (cCAPs). These cCAPs revealed brain-wide intrinsic networks and their dynamics, indicating the configuration/reconfiguration of resting human brains into recurring and propagating functional states, which are featured with the prominent spatial phenomena of global patterns and anti-state pairs of co-(de)activations. Rich oscillational structures across a wide frequency band (i.e., 0.6Hz, 5Hz, and 10Hz) were embedded in the dynamics of these functional states. We further identified a superstructure that regulated between-state propagations and governed a significant aspect of brain-wide network dynamics. These findings demonstrated how resting-state EEG data can be functionally decomposed using cCAPs to reveal rich structures of brain-wide human neural activations.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (23) ◽  
pp. 3037
Miguel Luján ◽  
María Jimeno ◽  
Jorge Mateo Sotos ◽  
Jorge Ricarte ◽  
Alejandro Borja

In this paper, a general overview regarding neural recording, classical signal processing techniques and machine learning classification algorithms applied to monitor brain activity is presented. Currently, several approaches classified as electrical, magnetic, neuroimaging recordings and brain stimulations are available to obtain neural activity of the human brain. Among them, non-invasive methods like electroencephalography (EEG) are commonly employed, as they can provide a high degree of temporal resolution (on the order of milliseconds) and acceptable space resolution. In addition, it is simple, quick, and does not create any physical harm or stress to patients. Concerning signal processing, once the neural signals are acquired, different procedures can be applied for feature extraction. In particular, brain signals are normally processed in time, frequency, and/or space domains. The features extracted are then used for signal classification depending on its characteristics such us the mean, variance or band power. The role of machine learning in this regard has become of key importance during the last years due to its high capacity to analyze complex amounts of data. The algorithms employed are generally classified in supervised, unsupervised and reinforcement techniques. A deep review of the most used machine learning algorithms and the advantages/drawbacks of most used methods is presented. Finally, a study of these procedures utilized in a very specific and novel research field of electroencephalography, i.e., autobiographical memory deficits in schizophrenia, is outlined.

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