organizing principles
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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-43
Aida Sheshbolouki ◽  
M. Tamer Özsu

We study the fundamental problem of butterfly (i.e., (2,2)-bicliques) counting in bipartite streaming graphs. Similar to triangles in unipartite graphs, enumerating butterflies is crucial in understanding the structure of bipartite graphs. This benefits many applications where studying the cohesion in a graph shaped data is of particular interest. Examples include investigating the structure of computational graphs or input graphs to the algorithms, as well as dynamic phenomena and analytic tasks over complex real graphs. Butterfly counting is computationally expensive, and known techniques do not scale to large graphs; the problem is even harder in streaming graphs. In this article, following a data-driven methodology, we first conduct an empirical analysis to uncover temporal organizing principles of butterflies in real streaming graphs and then we introduce an approximate adaptive window-based algorithm, sGrapp, for counting butterflies as well as its optimized version sGrapp-x. sGrapp is designed to operate efficiently and effectively over any graph stream with any temporal behavior. Experimental studies of sGrapp and sGrapp-x show superior performance in terms of both accuracy and efficiency.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
Nur Aytül Temiz ◽  
Seçil Yurdakul Erol

ABSTRACT: As a management function, organizing deals with activities designed to support the realization of institutional goals and plans, performed within an organizational structure that serves to connect, direct, manage, and control the activities associated with these plans and goals. Considering the extensive scope of landscape architecture, it is necessary for organizations operating in this field to focus on management and organization issues (which have ecological, architectural, economic, and social dimensions), and their integration with administrative functions to achieve success. In this context, the present study examined the organizing processes of private enterprises operating in the landscape sector, investigated the differences among them, and analyzed the interaction of organization-related aspects. Within this scope, the research focused on evaluating stages of organizing, principles and effects of organizing, organizational relations, and organizational authorities and responsibilities. The province of Istanbul was selected as a case study to consider the specified objectives. Data were collected through questionnaires and then sent through ANOVA and Spearman correlation analyses. The results showed that the main problems affecting these enterprises in terms of organizing were delegation, participative management, and inter-departmental relations. Organizational aims and customer groups were also shown to have an impact on these issues, and the components of the organizing function distinct relationships with one another. This study concluded that adopting a holistic approach in organizational processes and related applications is essential.

2021 ◽  
pp. 268-287
Vanessa R. Panfil

This chapter outlines what is entailed by queer criminological ethnographies. It first discusses the methodologies and findings of notable ethnographic works about LGBTQ populations, including those not originally designed as ethnographies, and also briefly reviews relevant interview-based or participatory action studies. It next explores discussions of queer epistemology in queer criminological work and the social science enterprise to evaluate to what extent there is a “queer method” and what its organizing principles are (or should be). It then evaluates several debates relevant to conducting ethnography in queer criminology, including methodological and political considerations such as how to situate the work and whether traditional ethnographic approaches are appropriate. The chapter presents detailed descriptions of priority areas for future research, including international projects. The chapter closes with a discussion of policy implications that may emerge from queer criminology ethnographies, which are relevant not only for criminal justice settings but for criminology as a field.

2021 ◽  
Lei Ding ◽  
Guofa Shou ◽  
Yoon-Hee Cha ◽  
John A. Sweeney ◽  
Han Yuan

AbstractSpontaneous neural activity in human as assessed with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) exhibits brain-wide coordinated patterns in the frequency of <0.1Hz. However, fast brain-wide networks at the timescales of neuronal events (milliseconds to sub-seconds) and their spatial, spectral, and propagational characteristics remain unclear due to the temporal constraints of hemodynamic signals. With milli-second resolution and whole-head coverage, scalp-based electroencephalography (EEG) provides a unique window into brain-wide networks with neuronal-timescale dynamics, shedding light on the organizing principles of brain function. Using state-of-the-art signal processing techniques, we reconstructed cortical neural tomography from resting-state EEG and extracted component-based co-activation patterns (cCAPs). These cCAPs revealed brain-wide intrinsic networks and their dynamics, indicating the configuration/reconfiguration of resting human brains into recurring and propagating functional states, which are featured with the prominent spatial phenomena of global patterns and anti-state pairs of co-(de)activations. Rich oscillational structures across a wide frequency band (i.e., 0.6Hz, 5Hz, and 10Hz) were embedded in the dynamics of these functional states. We further identified a superstructure that regulated between-state propagations and governed a significant aspect of brain-wide network dynamics. These findings demonstrated how resting-state EEG data can be functionally decomposed using cCAPs to reveal rich structures of brain-wide human neural activations.

2021 ◽  
pp. 0095327X2110482
Eyal Ben-Ari ◽  
Elisheva Rosman ◽  
Eitan Shamir

This article develops an analytical model of force composition that combines the advantages of conscription with those of an all-volunteer force. Using Israel as a hypothesis-generating case study, it argues that mandatory military service has undergone changes centered on five key organizing principles: selective conscription, early discharges, elongated lengths of service, forms of voluntary service and differing pay-scales, and other material and non-material incentives for conscripts. These principles are “grafted” onto conscription creating a hybrid, “volunteer-ized” model. The utility of the theoretical model lies in explaining how these principles facilitate mobilizing a needed number or recruits, providing an adequate level of military expertise, as well as maintaining the legitimacy of the armed forces by meeting domestic social, economic, and political expectations about its composition and the use of personnel at its disposal. The system is adaptive and flexible, as shown through the comparisons throughout the paper.

2021 ◽  
Emilie Louise Josephs ◽  
Martin N Hebart ◽  
Talia Konkle

Near-scale, reach-relevant environments, like work desks, restaurant place settings or lab benches, are the interface of our hand-based interactions with the world. How are our conceptual representations of these environments organized? For navigable-scale scenes, global properties such as openness, depth or naturalness have been identified, but the analogous organizing principles for reach-scale environments are not known. To uncover such principles, we obtained 1.25 million odd-one-out behavioral judgments on image triplets assembled from 990 reachspace images. Images were selected to comprehensively sample the variation both between and within reachspace categories. Using data-driven modeling, we generated a 30-dimensional embedding which predicts human similarity judgments among the images. First, examination of the embedding dimensions revealed key properties that distinguish among reachspaces, relating to their structural layout, affordances, visual appearances and functional roles. Second, clustering analyses performed over the embedding revealed four distinct interpretable classes of reachspaces, with separate clusters for spaces related to food, electronics, analog activities, and storage or display. Finally, we found that the similarity structure among reachspace images was better predicted by the function of the spaces than their locations, suggesting that reachspaces are largely conceptualized in terms of the actions they are designed to support. Altogether, these results reveal the behaviorally-relevant principles that that structure our internal representations of reach-relevant environments.

2021 ◽  
pp. 3-40 ◽  
Maria Laura Frigotto ◽  
Mitchell Young ◽  
Rómulo Pinheiro

AbstractResilience has attracted a multitude of scholars from diverse backgrounds and disciplines as it is a desired feature for responding to the adversities that modern societal systems face, not least the Covid-19 pandemic. Existing research displays little convergence on the definition of the concept making a robust theoretical framework and empirical understanding of resilience highly desirable. The aim of this chapter is to provide a more holistic understanding of the complex phenomenon of resilience from a multi-sectorial, cross-national and multidisciplinary perspective by proposing an original approach into the state of the art that might enhance future research. This chapter identifies three organizing principles for a framework of resilience. First, resilience embeds both stability and change which are both required elements. Second, adversities and their novelty profile can be mapped onto a typology of absorptive, adaptive and transformative resilience. Third, resilience has a temporal dimension that can be articulated in regard to forecasting, mechanisms and outcomes. The chapters of this edited book are positioned and connected by applying these three principles, in order to both enable theory testing and theory development throughout the volume and provide key empirical insights useful for societies, organizations and individuals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 54 (1) ◽  
Randy H. Ewoldt ◽  
Chaimongkol Saengow

Taking a small step away from Newtonian fluid behavior creates an explosion in the range of possibilities. Non-Newtonian fluid properties can achieve diverse flow objectives, but the complexity introduces challenges. We survey useful rheological complexity along with organizing principles and design methods as we consider the following questions: How can non-Newtonian properties be useful? What properties are needed? How can we get those properties? Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 54 is January 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

2021 ◽  
Dan Braha

Understanding the functions carried out by network subgraphs is important to revealing the organizing principles of diverse complex networks. Here, we study this question in the context of collaborative problem-solving, which is central to a variety of domains from engineering and medicine to economics and social planning. We analyze the frequency of all three- and four-node subgraphs in diverse real problem-solving networks. The results reveal a strong association between a dynamic property of network subgraphs—synchronizability—and the frequency and significance of these subgraphs in problem-solving networks. In particular, we show that highly-synchronizable subgraphs are overrepresented in the networks, while poorly-synchronizable subgraphs are underrepresented, suggesting that dynamical properties affect their prevalence, and thus the global structure of networks. We propose the possibility that selective pressures that favor more synchronizable subgraphs could account for their abundance in problem-solving networks. The empirical results also show that unrelated problem-solving networks display very similar local network structure, implying that network subgraphs could represent organizational routines that enable better coordination and control of problem-solving activities. The findings could also have potential implications in understanding the functionality of network subgraphs in other information-processing networks, including biological and social networks.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Loreta Medina ◽  
Antonio Abellán ◽  
Ester Desfilis

The pallium is the largest part of the telencephalon in amniotes, and comparison of its subdivisions across species has been extremely difficult and controversial due to its high divergence. Comparative embryonic genoarchitecture studies have greatly contributed to propose models of pallial fundamental divisions, which can be compared across species and be used to extract general organizing principles as well as to ask more focused and insightful research questions. The use of these models is crucial to discern between conservation, convergence or divergence in the neural populations and networks found in the pallium. Here we provide a critical review of the models proposed using this approach, including tetrapartite, hexapartite and double-ring models, and compare them to other models. While recognizing the power of these models for understanding brain architecture, development and evolution, we also highlight limitations and comment on aspects that require attention for improvement. We also discuss on the use of transcriptomic data for understanding pallial evolution and advise for better contextualization of these data by discerning between gene regulatory networks involved in the generation of specific units and cell populations versus genes expressed later, many of which are activity dependent and their expression is more likely subjected to convergent evolution.

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