Spatial Justice Perceptions in High-Income and Low-Income Quarters of Tehran, Iran: Case Study of Niavaran and NematAbad Quarters

Mohammadsaleh Shokouhibidhendi ◽  
Mohammad Abbaspour Kalmarzi
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (5) ◽  
pp. 112
Mauricio Herrera ◽  
Alex Godoy-Faúndez

The COVID-19 crisis has shown that we can only prevent the risk of mass contagion through timely, large-scale, coordinated, and decisive actions. This pandemic has also highlighted the critical importance of generating rigorous evidence for decision-making, and actionable insights from data, considering further the intricate web of causes and drivers behind observed patterns of contagion diffusion. Using mobility, socioeconomic, and epidemiological data recorded throughout the pandemic development in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, we seek to understand the observed patterns of contagion. We characterize human mobility patterns during the pandemic through different mobility indices and correlate such patterns with the observed contagion diffusion, providing data-driven models for insights, analysis, and inferences. Through these models, we examine some effects of the late application of mobility restrictions in high-income urban regions that were affected by high contagion rates at the beginning of the pandemic. Using augmented synthesis control methods, we study the consequences of the early lifting of mobility restrictions in low-income sectors connected by public transport to high-risk and high-income communes. The Santiago Metropolitan Region is one of the largest Latin American metropolises with features that are common to large cities. Therefore, it can be used as a relevant case study to unravel complex patterns of the spread of COVID-19.

2014 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Samantha B Meyer

Research attributes low fruit and vegetable consumption to problems of access, availability and affordability. We conducted, for the first time, a case study with three families designed and analysed using the sustainable Livelihoods Framework. The benefit of such an approach is that we moved away from identified barriers and towards identifying the capabilities and resources low-income families use to incorporate fruit and vegetables into their diets. Mitigating cost and access, we provided families with a box of fresh fruit and vegetables free of charge for up to 10 weeks and observed and recorded how/if the contents were used. Results identify the importance of social networking, organizational skills, knowledge of health benefits, and social structures. This paper demonstrates an effective methodology for understanding the capabilities of, rather than barriers to, low-income families increasing fruit and vegetable intake. Additionally, we provide a ‘how to’ and ‘lessons from the field’ for researchers interested in conducting research of this nature.

Jurnal Dampak ◽  
2014 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 28 ◽  
Yommi Dewilda ◽  
Yeggi Darnas

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan data timbulan dan komposisi sampah domestik di Kabupaten Tanah Datar serta dapat membandingkan perbedaan timbulan dan komposisi sampah yang dihasilkan berdasarkan tingkat pendapatan masyarakat (High income, Medium income dan Low income). Data timbulan dan komposisi sampah diperlukan dalam perencanaan dan pengembangan sistem pengelolaan sampah. Sampling timbulan dan jumlah sampling dilakukan berdasarkan SNI 19-3964-1994. Hasil penelitian timbulan sampah domestik dalam satuan berat 0,232 kg/o/h dan dalam satuan volume 3,646 l/o/h. Berdasarkan tingkat pendapatan dalam satuan berat High Income (HI) 0,308 kg/o/h, Medium Income (MI) 0,198 kg/o/h dan Low Income (LI) 0,190 kg/o/h dalam satuan volume HI 4,269 l/o/h, MI 3,835 l/o/h dan LI 2,835 l/o/h. Timbulan sampah yang dihasilkan penduduk dengan High Incame lebih besar dibandingkan dengan penduduk dengan pendapatan Medium Income dan Low Income. Komposisi sampah domestik untuk sampah basah 75,5%; sampah plastik 16,6%; sampah kertas 5,3%; sampah tekstil 0,8%; sampah kayu 0,3%; sampah kaca 0,7%; sampah logam ferrous 0,2%; sampah logam non ferrous 0,1%; dan sampah lain-lain 0,5%.Kata kunci: sampah domestik, komposisi sampah, timbulan Sampah

2014 ◽  
Vol 52 (4) ◽  
pp. 422-445 ◽  
Hans W. Klar ◽  
Curtis A. Brewer

Purpose – In this paper, the authors present a case study of successful school leadership at County Line Middle School. The purpose of the paper is to identify how particular leadership practices and beliefs were adapted to increase student achievement in this rural, high-poverty school in the southeastern USA. Design/methodology/approach – After purposefully selecting this school, the authors adapted interview protocols, questionnaires, and analysis frameworks from the International Successful School Principalship Project to develop a multi-perspective case study of principal leadership practices at the school. Findings – The findings illustrate the practices which led to students at this school, previously the lowest-performing in the district, achieving significantly higher on state standardized tests, getting along “like a family,” and regularly participating in service learning activities and charity events. A particularly interesting finding was how the principal confronted the school's negative self-image and adapted common leadership practices to implement a school-wide reform that suited its unique context. Research limitations/implications – While the findings of the study explicate the specific ways the principal adapted leadership strategies to enhance student learning, this study also highlights the need to understand how principals become familiar with their community's needs, cultures, norms, and values, and exercise leadership in accordance with them. Practical implications – The case offers an example of the need for context-responsive leadership in schools. In particular, it illustrates how this principal enacted leadership strategies that successfully negotiated what Woods (2006) referred to as the changing politics of the rural. To realize this success, the principal utilized his understanding of this low income, rural community to guide his leadership practices. Critically, part of this understanding included the ways the community was connected to and isolated from dominant sub-urban and urban societies, and how to build enthusiasm and capacity through appeals to local values. Originality/value – While it is widely acknowledged that school leaders need to consider their school and community contexts when making leadership decisions, less research has focussed on understanding how this can be achieved. This case provides rich examples of how this was accomplished in a rural, high-poverty middle school.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 2530
Navika Gangrade ◽  
Janet Figueroa ◽  
Tashara M. Leak

Snacking contributes a significant portion of adolescents’ daily energy intake and is associated with poor overall diet and increased body mass index. Adolescents from low socioeconomic status (SES) households have poorer snacking behaviors than their higher-SES counterparts. However, it is unclear if the types of food/beverages and nutrients consumed during snacking differ by SES among adolescents. Therefore, this study examines SES disparities in the aforementioned snacking characteristics by analyzing the data of 7132 adolescents (12–19 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2018. Results reveal that adolescents from low-income households (poverty-to-income ratio (PIR) ≤ 1.3) have lower odds of consuming the food/beverage categories “Milk and Dairy” (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.58-0.95; p = 0.007) and “Fruits” (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50–0.78; p = 0.001) as snacks and higher odds of consuming “Beverages” (aOR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.19-1.76; p = 0.001) compared to those from high-income households (PIR > 3.5). Additionally, adolescents from low- and middle-income (PIR > 1.3–3.5) households consume more added sugar (7.98 and 7.78 g vs. 6.66 g; p = 0.012, p = 0.026) and less fiber (0.78 and 0.77 g vs. 0.84 g; p = 0.044, p = 0.019) from snacks compared to their high-income counterparts. Future research is necessary to understand factors that influence snacking among adolescents, and interventions are needed, especially for adolescents from low-SES communities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
pp. 183449092110257
Qiong Li ◽  
Chen Deng ◽  
Bin Zuo ◽  
Xiaobin Zhang

This study explored whether vertical position affects social categorization of the rich and the poor. Experiment 1 used high- and low-income occupations as stimuli, and found participants categorized high-income occupations faster when they were presented in the top vertical position compared to the bottom vertical position. In Experiment 2, participants responded using either the “up” or “down” key to categorize high- and low-income occupations, and responded faster to high-income occupations with the “up” key and low-income occupations with the “down” key. In Experiment 3, names identified as belonging to either rich or poor individuals were presented at the top or bottom of a screen, and the results were the same as in Experiments 1 and 2. These findings suggest that social categorization based on wealth involved perceptual simulations of vertical position, and that vertical position affects the social categorization of the rich and the poor.

Religions ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (7) ◽  
pp. 548
Elliott Ingersoll ◽  
Sophia Elliott ◽  
Stephanie Drcar

UFGLI students comprise 34% of the students enrolled in four-year universities. Unlike some students, UFGLI students face internal and systemic barriers throughout their educational experience and their struggles are often dismissed and disregarded. Working and raising a family while taking courses, minimal support systems, and financial struggles require students to optimize their resources. We explore the issues of UFGLI students and the importance of their spiritual and religious supports using a literature review and a case study. Religious and spiritual identities are resources that should be explored and supported by staff at university counselling centers. Affirming UFGLI students’ religious and spiritual identities and understanding how religion and spirituality work in their lives can assist these students in their acclimation to and success at university.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 161-176
Kellie Schneider ◽  
Diana Cuy Castellanos ◽  
Felix Fernando ◽  
Jeanne A. Holcomb

Food deserts, areas in which it is difficult to obtain affordable, nutritious food, are especially problematic in low-income neighbourhoods. One model for addressing food hardship and unemployment issues within low-income food deserts is a cooperative grocery store. Through the cooperative model, the grocery store can serve as a cornerstone to address socio-economic marginalisation of low-income neighbourhoods and improve the health and well-being of its residents. It is important for communities and policymakers to be able to assess the effectiveness of these types of endeavours beyond traditional economic factors such as profitability. This article uses a systems engineering approach to develop a framework for measuring the holistic impact of a cooperative grocery store on community health and well-being. This framework encompasses values that characterise the relationship between food retail, economic viability and social equality. We develop a dashboard to display the key metrics for measuring the economic, social and environmental indicators that reflect a grocery store’s social impact. We demonstrate the usefulness of the framework through a case study of a full-service cooperative grocery store that is planned within the city of Dayton, OH.

2018 ◽  
Vol 19 (1_suppl) ◽  
pp. 63S-69S
Catherine Sands ◽  
Neftali Duran ◽  
Laura Christoph ◽  
Carol Stewart

In the Holyoke Food & Fitness Policy Council (HFFPC) case study, the challenges of providing equitable multistakeholder organizing are examined. The importance of housing the work in the community, power sharing, and having community representation in the leadership is made clear. The HFFPC partnership began with vigor, encountered challenges of trust, transparency, aligned goals and values; it dissolved, and reformed. Because it began with shared values of strong communities and healthy people, the partnership continues to evolve, build local leadership, change narratives, and articulate the need for racial equity in their food system, while shifting local systems and policies that frame who has access to healthy food and safe spaces to exercise in a low-income Latino community.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Isaac Mbir Bryant ◽  
Abdul-Rahaman Afitiri

Abstract Background Sustainability of energy is key for quality life; thus, the use of clean energy at the household level warrants moving from fossil-based energy to modern forms like biogas. However, the joint interactive effect of household income, biogas usage and willingness to adopt a single-stage solar-supported hyper-thermophilic anaerobic biogas digester (SSHTABD) is not known. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess the willingness of residents of Elmina to adopt the SSHTABD. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 219 respondents fitted into a complementary log–log regression model. Results Household willingness to adopt the SSHTABD was 86%. Among them are households not willing to use biogas but have high income and households willing to use biogas but have either low or high income are more likely to adopt the technology compared to households not willing to use biogas and have low income. Households not willing to use biogas, but have high income (OR = 1.725, confidence interval [CI] 0.803–3.706) and households willing to use biogas, but have low income (OR = 1.877, CI 1.103–3.188) compared to households willing to use biogas and have high income (OR = 1.725, CI 1.080–3.451) are more likely to adopt the technology as households not willing to use biogas and have low income. Additionally, households employed under the formal government sector, formal and informal private sectors are 40%, 136% and 103%, respectively, more likely to adopt the technology than those unemployed. Conclusion The high willingness of households to adopt the technology calls for government to support households to own biogas digesters thus requires policy interventions and interdisciplinary research.

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