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Arianna Storelli ◽  
Grazia Barone ◽  
Rita Garofalo ◽  
Antonio Busco ◽  
Maria Maddalena Storelli

This study measures total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in elasmobranch fish from an Italian market with the aim of evaluating the risk-benefit associated with their consumption, using estimated weekly intake (EWI), permissible safety level (MeHgPSL), selenium health benefit value (HBVSe) and monthly consumption rate limit (CRmm) for each species. THg and Se were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry, while MeHg was determined by HrGc/Ms. THg and MeHg concentrations ranged from 0.61 to 1.25 μg g−1 w.w. and from 0.57 to 0.97 μg g−1 w.w., respectively, whereas Se levels were 0.49–0.65 μg g−1 w.w. In most samples European Community limits for THg were surpassed, while for MeHg none of the fish had levels above the limit adopted by FAO/WHO. EWIs for THg and MeHg in many cases were above the provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs). MeHgPSL estimate showed that fish should contain approximately 50% of the concentration measured to avoid exceeding the PTWI. Nevertheless, the HBVSe index indicated that solely skates were safe for human consumption (HBVSe = 3.57–6.22). Our results highlight the importance of a constant monitoring of THg and MeHg level in fish, especially in apex predators, to avoid the risk of overexposure for consumers.

2021 ◽  
Peter Apicella ◽  
Lauren Sands ◽  
Yi Ma ◽  
Gerald A Berkowitz

Cannabinoids are predominantly produced in the glandular trichomes on cannabis female flowers. There is little known on how cannabinoid biosynthesis is regulated during female flower development. We aim to understand the rate-limiting step(s) in the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway. We investigated the transcript levels of cannabinoid biosynthetic genes as well as cannabinoid contents during 7 weeks of female flower development. We demonstrated that the enzymatic steps for producing CBG, which involve genes GPPS, PT and OAC, could be rate limit cannabinoid biosynthesis. Our findings further suggest that cannabinoid synthases, CBDAS and THCAS in a hemp and medical marijuana variety respectively, are not critical for cannabinoid biosynthesis. The cannabinoid biosynthetic genes are generally upregulated during flower maturation, which indicate glandular trichome development. MeJA can potentially increase cannabinoid production. We propose that biweekly application of 100 μM MeJA staring from flower initiation would be efficacious for promoting cannabinoid biosynthesis.

Vehicles ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 636-645
Edward Kraft ◽  
Ping He ◽  
Stephan Rinderknecht

In this paper, a motion cueing algorithm (MCA) without a frequency divider is proposed, which aims to reproduce the longitudinal reference acceleration as far as possible via tilt coordination. Using a second-order rate limit, the human perception thresholds can directly be taken into account when parameterizing the MCA. The washout is compensated by tilt coordination and means of feedback from the translational acceleration. The proposed MCA is compared with the classical washout algorithm and the compensation MCA based on selected qualitative metrics and their workspace demand. In addition, a subjective study on the evaluation of the MCA was conducted. The results show that even high washout rates are not noticeable by the test subjects. Overall, the MCA was rated as very good.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (5) ◽  
pp. 191
Chan-Kao Chang ◽  
Ying-Tung Chen ◽  
Wesley C. Fraser ◽  
Fumi Yoshida ◽  
Matthew J. Lehner ◽  

2021 ◽  
Victor Ivan Moreno-Oliva ◽  
Jose Angel Desales-Dominguez ◽  
Edwin Román-Hernández ◽  
Manuel Campos-García

Heart Rhythm ◽  
2021 ◽  
Arjun D. Sharma ◽  
Bruce L. Wilkoff ◽  
Mark Richards ◽  
Nicholas Wold ◽  
Paul Jones ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alexander E. S. Van Driessche ◽  
Nani Van Gerven ◽  
Rick R. M. Joosten ◽  
Wai Li Ling ◽  
Maria Bacia ◽  

AbstractSelf-assembly of proteins holds great promise for the bottom-up design and production of synthetic biomaterials. In conventional approaches, designer proteins are pre-programmed with specific recognition sites that drive the association process towards a desired organized state. Although proven effective, this approach poses restrictions on the complexity and material properties of the end-state. An alternative, hierarchical approach that has found wide adoption for inorganic systems, relies on the production of crystalline nanoparticles that become the building blocks of a next-level assembly process driven by oriented attachment (OA). As it stands, OA has not yet been observed for protein systems. Here we employ cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryoEM) in the high nucleation rate limit of protein crystals and map the self-assembly route at molecular resolution. We observe the initial formation of facetted nanocrystals that merge lattices by means of OA alignment well before contact is made, satisfying non-trivial symmetry rules in the process. As these nanocrystalline assemblies grow larger we witness imperfect docking events leading to oriented aggregation into mesocrystalline assemblies. These observations highlight the underappreciated role of the interaction between crystalline nuclei, and the impact of OA on the crystallization process of proteins.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (11) ◽  
pp. 3008
Agnieszka W. Lach ◽  
André V. Gaathaug

This paper presents a series of experiments on the effectiveness of existing mechanical ventilation systems during accidental hydrogen releases in confined spaces, such as underground garages. The purpose was to find the mass flow rate limit, hence the TPRD diameter limit, that will not require a change in the ventilation system. The experiments were performed in a 40 ft ISO container in Norway, and hydrogen gas was used in all experiments. The forced ventilation system was installed with a standard 315 mm diameter outlet. The ventilation parameters during the investigation were British Standard with 10 ACH and British Standard with 6 ACH. The hydrogen releases were obtained through 0.5 mm and 1 mm nozzles from different hydrogen reservoir pressures. Both types of mass flow, constant and blowdown, were included in the experimental matrix. The analysis of the hydrogen concentration of the created hydrogen cloud in the container shows the influence of the forced ventilation on hydrogen releases, together with TPRD diameter and reservoir pressure. The generated experimental data will be used to validate a CFD model in the next step.

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