During metabolically demanding physiological states, ruminants and other mammals coordinate nutrient use among tissues by varying the set point of insulin action. This set point is regulated in part by metabolic hormones with some antagonizing (e.g., growth hormone and TNFa) and others potentiating (e.g., adiponectin) insulin action. Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) was recently identified as a sensitizing hormone in rodent and primate models of defective insulin action. FGF21 administration, however, failed to improve insulin action in dairy cows during the naturally occurring insulin resistance of lactation, raising the possibility that ruminants as a class of animals or lactation as a physiological state are unresponsive to FGF21. To start addressing this question, we asked whether FGF21 could improve insulin action in non-lactating ewes. Gene expression studies showed that the ovine FGF21 system resembles that of other species, with liver as the major site of FGF21 expression and adipose tissue as a target tissue based on high expression of the FGF21 receptor complex and activation of p44/42 ERK1/2 following exogenous FGF21 administration. FGF21 treatment for 13 days reduced plasma glucose and insulin over the entire treatment period and improved glucose disposal during a glucose tolerance test. FGF21 increased plasma adiponectin by day 3 of treatment but had no effect on the plasma concentrations of total, C16:0-, or C18:0-ceramide. Overall, these data confirm that the insulin-sensitizing effects of FGF21 are conserved in ruminants and raise the possibility that lactation is an FGF21 resistant state.
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is produced in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON). Peripheral AVP, which is secreted from the posterior pituitary, is produced in the magnocellular division of the PVN (mPVN) and SON. In addition, AVP is produced in the parvocellular division of the PVN (pPVN), where corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is synthesized. These peptides synergistically modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Previous studies have revealed that the HPA axis was activated by the hypovolemia. However, the detailed dynamics of AVP in the pPVN under hypovolemic state has not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated the effects of hypovolemia and hyperosmolality on the hypothalamus, using AVP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic rats. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) or 3% hypertonic saline (HTN) was intraperitoneally administered in order to develop hypovolemia or hyperosmolality. AVP-eGFP intensity was robustly upregulated at 3 and 6 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of PEG or HTN in the mPVN. While in the pPVN, eGFP intensity was significantly increased at 6 h after i.p. administration of PEG with significant induction of Fos-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons. Consistently, eGFP mRNA, AVP hnRNA, and CRF mRNA in the pPVN and plasma AVP and corticosterone were significantly increased at 6 h after i.p. administration of PEG. The results suggest that AVP and CRF syntheses in the pPVN were activated by hypovolemia, resulting in the activation of the HPA axis.
Breath-hold diving evokes a complex cardiovascular response. The degrees of hypertension induced by the diving reflex are substantial and accentuated by the underwater swimming. This condition provides a circulatory challenge to properly buffer and cushion cardiac pulsations. We determined hemodynamic changes during the diving maneuver. A total of 20 healthy young adults were studied. Hemodynamics were measured during exercise on a cycle ergometer, apnea, face immersion in cold water (trigeminal stimulation), and simulated breath-hold diving. Dynamic arterial compliance (measured by changes in carotid artery diameter via ultrasound divided by changes in carotid blood pressure as assessed by arterial tonometry) increased with simulated diving compared with rest (p=0.007) and was elevated compared with exercise and apnea alone (p<0.01). A significant increase in heart rate was observed with exercise, apnea, and facial immersion when compared with rest (p<0.001). However, simulated diving brought the heart rate down to resting levels. Cardiac output increased with all conditions (p<0.001), with an attenuated response during simulated diving compared with exercise and facial immersion (p<0.05). Mean blood pressure was elevated during all conditions (p<0.001), with a further elevation observed during simulated diving compared with exercise (p<0.001), apnea (p=0.016), and facial immersion (p<0.001). Total peripheral resistance was decreased during exercise and facial immersion compared with rest (p<0.001) but was increased during simulated diving compared with exercise (p<0.001), apnea (p=0.008), and facial immersion (p=0.003). We concluded that central artery compliance is augmented during simulated breath-hold diving to help buffer cardiac pulsations.
Intrauterine programming of cardiovascular and renal function occurs in diabetes because of the adverse maternal environment. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and -2 (HO-2) exert vasodilatory, and antioxidant actions, particularly in conditions of elevated HO-1 expression, or deficient nitric oxide levels. We evaluated whether the activity of the heme-HO system is differentially regulated by oxidative stress in the female offspring of diabetic mothers, contributing to the improved cardiovascular function compared to male. Diabetes was induced in pregnant rats by a single dose of Streptozotocin (STZ, 50mg/kg i.p) in late gestation. Three months old male offspring from diabetic mothers (MOD) exhibited higher blood pressure values (BP), higher renal vascular resistance (RVR), worse endothelium -dependent response to Acetylcholine and an increased constrictor response to Phenylephrine, compared to those in aged matched female (FOD), which were abolished by chronic Tempol (1mM) treatment. In anesthetized animals, Stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP; 40 µmol/kg i.v.) administration, to inhibit HO activity, increased RVR in FOD and reduced glomerular filtration rate in MOD, without altering these parameters in control animals. Compared to MOD, FOD showed lower nitrotirosyne levels, and higher HO-1 protein expression in renal homogenates. Indeed, chronic treatment with Tempol to MOD, prevented elevations in nitrotyrosine levels, and the acute renal hemodynamics response to SnMP. Then, maternal diabetes results in sex specific hypertension, and renal alterations associated to oxidative stress, mainly in adult male offspring, which are reduced in the female offspring, by elevation in HO-1 expression and lower oxidative stress levels.
Many lung diseases are caused by an excessive inflammatory response, and inflammatory lung diseases are often modeled using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) encoded by the Ptgs2 gene is induced in response to inflammatory stimuli including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that mice deficient in COX-2 (Ptgs2-/-) will be protected from LPS-induced lung injury. Wild type (WT, CD1 mice) and Ptgs2-/- mice (on a CD1 background) were treated with LPS or vehicle for 24 hours. LPS-treatment resulted in histological evidence of lung injury, which was attenuated in the Ptgs2-/- mice. LPS-treatment increased the mRNA levels for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in the lungs of WT mice, and the LPS-induced increases in these levels were attenuated in the Ptgs2-/- mice. The protein levels of active caspase-3 and caspase-9 were lower in the LPS-treated lungs of Ptgs2-/- mice than in LPS-treated WT mice, as were the number of TUNEL positive cells in lung sections. LPS exposure resulted in greater lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D) in WT mice, suggestive of pulmonary edema; while in LPS-treated Ptgs2-/- mice the W/D was not different from controls and less than in LPS-treated WT mice. These results demonstrate that COX-2 is involved in the inflammatory response to LPS, and suggest that COX-2 not only acts as a downstream participant in the inflammatory response, but also acts as a regulator of the inflammatory response likely through a feed-forward mechanism following LPS stimulation.
The purpose of this study is to determine if superficial peroneal nerve stimulation (SPNS) can improve nonobstructive urinary retention (NOUR) induced by prolonged pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS). In this exploratory acute study using 8 cats under anesthesia, PNS and SPNS were applied by nerve cuff electrodes. Skin surface electrodes were also used for SPNS. A double lumen catheter was inserted via the bladder dome for bladder infusion and pressure measurement and to allow voiding without a physical urethral outlet obstruction. The voided and postvoid residual (PVR) volumes were also recorded. NOUR induced by repetitive (4-13 times) application of 30-min PNS significantly (p<0.05) reduced voiding efficiency by 49.5±16.8% of control (78.3±7.9%) with a large PVR volume at 208.2±82.6% of control bladder capacity. SPNS (1 Hz, 0.2 ms) at 1.5 to 2 times threshold intensity (T) for inducing posterior thigh muscle contractions was applied either continuously (SPNSc) or intermittently (SPNSi) during cystometrograms to improve the PNS-induced NOUR. SPNSc and SPNSi applied by nerve cuff electrodes significantly (p<0.05) increased voiding efficiency to 74.5±18.9% and 67.0±15.3%, respectively, and reduced PVR volume to 54.5±39.0% and 88.3±56.0%, respectively. SPNSc and SPNSi applied non-invasively by skin surface electrodes also improved NOUR similar to the stimulation applied by a cuff electrode. This study indicates that abnormal pudendal afferent activity could be a pathophysiological cause for the NOUR occurring in Fowler's syndrome and a noninvasive superficial peroneal neuromodulation therapy might be developed to treat NOUR in patients with Fowler's syndrome.
While the patterns of response within the sympatho-adrenal medullary (SAM) system and hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis are interesting and important in their own accord, the overall response to acute psychological stress involves reactivity of both pathways We tested the hypothesis that consideration of the integrated response of these pathways may reveal dysregulation of the stress systems that is not evident when considering either system alone. Age matched lean and overweight/obese men were subjected to a Trier Social Stress Test and reactivity of the SAM system (salivary alpha amylase, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate) and the HPA axis (salivary cortisol) were measured. Relative reactivity of SAM system and HPA axis was calculated as the ratio between the measures from each pathway. While analysis of reactivity of individual stress pathways showed no evidence of dysfunction in overweight/obese compared with lean men, analysis of HPA/SAM reactivity revealed significantly lower cortisol over systolic blood pressure (CoSBP) and cortisol over diastolic blood pressure (CoDBP) reactivity in overweight/obese compared with lean men. Other measures of HPA/SAM reactivity and all measures of SAM/HPA reactivity were unaltered in overweight/obese compared with lean men. These findings suggest that the cortisol response per unit of blood pressure response is blunted in men with elevated adiposity. Further, these findings support a notion of a coordinated overall approach to activation of the stress pathways with the degree of activation in one pathway being related to the degree of activation of the other.
Purpose: To investigate exosome-like vesicle (ELV) plasma concentrations and markers of multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis in skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. Methods: Seventeen healthy (BMI: 23.5±0.5kg·m-2) and fifteen prediabetic (BMI: 27.3±1.2kg·m-2) men were randomly assigned to two groups performing an acute cycling bout in normoxia or hypoxia (FiO2 14.0%). Venous blood samples were taken before (T0), during (T30) and after (T60) exercise and biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were collected before and after exercise. Plasma ELVs were isolated by size exclusion chromatography, counted by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and characterized according to international standards, followed by expression analyses of canonical ELV markers in skeletal muscle. Results: In the healthy normoxic group, the total number of particles in the plasma increased during exercise from T0 to T30 (+313%) followed by a decrease from T30 to T60 (-53%). In the same group, an increase in TSG101, CD81 and HSP60 protein expression was measured after exercise in plasma ELVs; however, in the prediabetic group, the total number of particles in the plasma was not affected by exercise. The mRNA content of TSG101, ALIX and CD9 were upregulated in skeletal muscle after exercise in normoxia; whereas, CD9 and CD81 were downregulated in hypoxia. Conclusions: ELV plasma abundance increased in response to acute aerobic exercise in healthy subjects in normoxia, but not in prediabetic subjects, nor in hypoxia. Skeletal muscle analyses suggested that this tissue did not likely play a major role of the exercise-induced increase in circulating ELVs.
Skeletal muscle from the late gestation sheep fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has evidence of reduced oxidative metabolism. Using a sheep model of placental insufficiency and IUGR, we tested the hypothesis that by late gestation, IUGR fetal skeletal muscle has reduced capacity for oxidative phosphorylation due to intrinsic deficits in mitochondrial respiration. We measured mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized muscle fibers from biceps femoris (BF) and soleus (SOL) from control and IUGR fetal sheep. Using muscles including BF, SOL, tibialis anterior (TA), and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), we measured citrate synthase (CS) activity, mitochondrial complex subunit abundance, fiber type distribution, and gene expression of regulators of mitochondrial biosynthesis. Ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was similar in control and IUGR muscle. However, CS activity was lower in IUGR BF and TA, indicating lower mitochondrial content, and protein expression of individual mitochondrial complex subunits was lower in IUGR TA and BF in a muscle specific pattern. IUGR TA, BF, and FDS also had lower expression of type I oxidative fibers. Fiber type shifts that support glycolytic instead of oxidative metabolism may be advantageous for the IUGR fetus in a hypoxic and nutrient deficient environment, whereas these adaptions may be maladaptive in postnatal life.
The significant similarities in airway epithelial cells between mammals and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have rendered the latter an important model organism for studies of chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Focusing on the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we here mapped human gene orthologs associated with this disease in D. melanogaster to identify functionally equivalent genes for immediate, further screening with the fruit fly model. The DIOPT-DIST tool was accessed for the prediction of the COPD-associated orthologs between humans and Drosophila. Enrichment analyses with respect to pathways of the retrieved functional homologs were performed using the ToppFun and FlyMine tools, identifying 73 unique human genes as well as 438 fruit fly genes. The ToppFun analysis verified that the human gene list is associated with COPD phenotypes. Further, the FlyMine investigation highlighted that the Drosophila genes are functionally connected mainly with the 'ABC-family proteins mediated transport' and the 'beta-catenin independent WNT signaling pathway'. These results suggest an evolutionarily conserved role towards responses to inhaled toxicants and CO2 in both species. We reason that the predicted orthologous genes should be further studied in the Drosophila models of cigarette smoke-induced COPD.