bayesian inferences
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Xuanjia Zuo ◽  
Liang Wang ◽  
Huizhong Lin ◽  
Sanku Dey ◽  
Li Yan

In this paper, the interest is in estimating the Weibull products when the available data is obtained via generalized progressive hybrid censoring. The testing scheme conducts products of interest under a more flexible way and allows collecting failure data in efficient and adaptable experimental scenarios than traditional lifetime testing. When the latent lifetime of products follows Weibull distribution, classical and Bayesian inferences are considered for unknown parameters. The existence and uniqueness of maximum likelihood estimates are established, and approximate confidence intervals are also constructed via asymptotic theory. Bayes point estimates as well as the credible intervals of the parameters are obtained, and correspondingly, Monte Carlo sampling technique is also provided for complex posterior computation. Extensive numerical analysis is carried out, and the results show that the generalized progressive hybrid censoring is an adaptive procedure in practical lifetime experiment, both proposed classical and Bayesian inferential approaches perform satisfactorily, and the Bayesian results are superior to conventional likelihood estimates.

2021 ◽  
pp. 357-382
Peter Müller

Hela Elmannai ◽  
Mohamed Saber Naceur ◽  
Mohamed Anis Loghmari ◽  
Abeer AlGarni

A new feature extraction approach is proposed in this paper to improve the classification performance in remotely sensed data. The proposed method is based on a primary sources subset (PSS) obtained by nonlinear transform that provides lower space for land pattern recognition. First, the underlying sources are approximated using multilayer neural networks. Given that, Bayesian inferences update unknown sources’ knowledge and model parameters with information’s data. Then, a source dimension minimizing technique is adopted to provide more efficient land cover description. The support vector machine (SVM) scheme is developed by using feature extraction. The experimental results on real multispectral imagery demonstrates that the proposed approach ensures efficient feature extraction by using several descriptors for texture identification and multiscale analysis. In a pixel based approach, the reduced PSS space improved the overall classification accuracy by 13% and reaches 82%. Using texture and multi resolution descriptors, the overall accuracy is 75.87% for the original observations, while using the reduced source space the overall accuracy reaches 81.67% when using jointly wavelet and Gabor transform and 86.67% when using Gabor transform. Thus, the source space enhanced the feature extraction process and allow more land use discrimination than the multispectral observations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 47 (3) ◽  
pp. 988-998
Ayoade I. Adewole ◽  
Olusoga A. Fasoranbaku

Bayesian estimations have the advantages of taking into account the uncertainty of all parameter estimates which allows virtually the use of vague priors. This study focused on determining the quantile range at which optimal hyperparameter of normally distributed data with vague information could be obtained in Bayesian estimation of linear regression models. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to generate a sample size of 200 data-set. Observation precisions and posterior precisions were estimated from the regression output to determine the posterior means estimate for each model to derive the new dependent variables. The variances were divided into 10 equal parts to obtain the hyperparameters of the prior distribution. Average absolute deviation for model selection was used to validate the adequacy of each model. The study revealed the optimal hyperparameters located at 5th and 7th deciles. The research simplified the process of selecting the hyperparameters of prior distribution from the data with vague information in empirical Bayesian inferences. Keywords: Optimal Hyperparameters; Quantile Ranges; Bayesian Estimation; Vague prior

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alexander Schreiber ◽  
Edgar Onea

In successful communication, the literal meaning of linguistic utterances is often enriched by pragmatic inferences. Part of the pragmatic reasoning underlying such inferences has been successfully modeled as Bayesian goal recognition in the Rational Speech Act (RSA) framework. In this paper, we try to model the interpretation of question-answer sequences with narrow focus in the answer in the RSA framework, thereby exploring the effects of domain size and prior probabilities on interpretation. Should narrow focus exhaustivity inferences be actually based on Bayesian inference involving prior probabilities of states, RSA models should predict a dependency of exhaustivity on these factors. We present experimental data that suggest that interlocutors do not act according to the predictions of the RSA model and that exhaustivity is in fact approximately constant across different domain sizes and priors. The results constitute a conceptual challenge for Bayesian accounts of the underlying pragmatic inferences.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
pp. 1308
Rui Chen ◽  
Samantha C. Karunarathna ◽  
Chang-Lin Zhao

Poriella subacida gen. & comb. nov., previously known as Perenniporia subacida, which causes white rot, has been documented in temperate and tropical forests. Specimens from Asia, North America, and Europe were examined, including the type specimen of Polylorus subacidus. Sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the 28S rDNA, the mitochondrial rDNA small subunit (mtSSU), and the gene encoding the translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1) were generated. In multigene phylogenies (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian inferences), “Perenniporia subacida” formed a well-supported lineage, distinct from the core “Perenniporia” clade (type species: “P. medulla-panis”), and sister to the “Yuchengia narymica” lineage. We therefore conclude that “P. subacida” should be placed in the new genus “Poriella”gen. nov. Morphologically, “Poriella” is characterized by a di- to trimitic hyphal system, non-truncate basidiospores, and strongly dextrinoid, cyanophilic skeletal hyphae.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Antonio Cejudo ◽  
Iñaki Ruiz-Pérez ◽  
Sergio Hernández-Sánchez ◽  
Mark De Ste Croix ◽  
Pilar Sainz de Baranda ◽  

The purposes of this study were to describe the lower extremities joints range of motion (ROM) profile using a comprehensive approach in futsal players and to examine potential player position (goalkeepers vs. outfield players), competitive level (first [top] division vs. second division), number of playing years, sex (males vs. females), and bilateral (dominant limb vs. non-dominant limb) differences. A total of 72 male and 67 female elite futsal players from 11 clubs were measured of passive hip (flexion with knee flexed [HFKF] and extended [HFKE], extension [HE], abduction [HA], external [HER], and internal [HIR] rotation), knee (flexion [KF]) and ankle (dorsiflexion with knee flexed [ADFKF] and extended [ADFKE]) ROMs. Bayesian inferences exploring differences between player position, competitive level, sex and limb were made. A Bayesian correlation analysis was conducted to explore the influence of playing years on joints ROMs. The results showed no significant player position or competitive level related differences in any average ROM score. However, statistically significant sex-related differences were documented whereby female players reported higher hip and knee joints ROM average values than their male counterparts. Especially relevant were the proportions of males (72%) and players from teams engaged in the second division (61%) displaying limited HFKE ROMs. Likewise, around 35% of all players showed restricted ADFKF ROMs. In addition, approximately 21, 18, 22, and 25% of the futsal players were identified as having bilateral asymmetries (≥8°) for HA, HIR, HER, and KF ROMs, respectively. Finally, Bayesian correlation analysis did not report any significant association between years of playing futsal and ROM measures (all r values < 0.34). The implications that these restricted HFKE and ADFKF ROMs and bilateral asymmetries in hip (abduction, internal and external rotation) and knee (flexion) ROMs caused by the practice of futsal may have on physical performance and injury risk warrant future research.

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