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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 106-116
Rakesh Kumar Chanania ◽  
Lakshay Goyal ◽  
Sanjeev Gupta ◽  
Gagandeep Chanania ◽  
Sahil Heer

Background: A prospective study was conducted on 100 patients of perforation peritonitis: To find out the incidence of gastro intestinal perforation in various age groups, sex, riral or urban, socio economic status, To find out the various causes and sites of gastra intestinal perforartions, To determine various types of procedures being done to treat gastro intestinal perforations.Methods:The study population consisted of 100 patients of perforation peritonitis admitted at surgical wards of Rajindra Hospital, Patiala. Patients underwent necessary investigations such as Blood counts, biochemical analysis and urine analysis. X-ray Abdomen and chest / USG Abdomen/Pelvis CT-Abdomen (as and when required). All diagnosed patients were subjected to surgery. In all cases, operative findings and postoperative course were followed up for three months. Final outcome was evaluated on the basis of clinical, operative and radiological findings. In pre-pyloric and duodenal perforation, GRAHAM’S PATCH REPAIR carried out. In Ileal and Jejunal perforations, primary closure or exteriorization done depending upon the condition of the gut and duration of the symptoms. The patient outcome was assessed by duration of hospital stay, wound infection, wound dehiscence, leakage/entero-cutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal collection/abscess, ileostomy related complications and reoperation. Wound infection was graded as per SSI grading.Results:Most common age group for perforation was 21-40 years (50%) followed by 41-60 (33%) years in present study. Mean age of the patients is 37.91 + 13.15 years with male predominance (78%) in our study. 4% of the patients were of upper socio-economic status while 32% of the patients were of middle and 64% of the patients were of lower socio-economic status.Abdominal pain was seen in 100% of the patients while abdominal distension was present in 69% of the patients. Nausea/Vomiting was seen in 61% of the patients while Fever and Constipation was seen in 53% and 86% of the patients respectively. Diarrhoea was seen in 3% of the patients. Tenderness, guarding & rigidity, distension, obliteration of liver dullness and evidence of free fluid were present in 100% of the patients. Bowel sounds were not detected in all the patients. Most common perforations were Duodena(37%), Ileal (25%), Gastric (25%) followed by Appendicular (9%), Jejunal (4%) and Colonic perforation (2%). The most common etiology of gastrointestinal perforations was Peptic ulcer followed by Typhoid, Appendicitis, Tuberculosis, Trauma, Malignancy and non-specific infection.In Gastric perforations, Peptic ulcer was the most common cause of perforation followed by Trauma. In Ileal perforations, Typhoid was the most common cause of perforation followed by Tuberculosis and non-specific infection. In Appendicular perforations, most common cause was Appendicitis. In Jejunal perforations, most common cause was Trauma. In Colonic perforations, most common cause was Malignancy.Conclusions:The incidence of gastrointestinal perforations was common in 21-40 years age group followed by 41-60 years age group with male preponderance in our study. The most common site of perforations was Gastro-duodenal followed by Ileal perforations and the most common cause for these perforations was peptic ulcer followed by typhoid. The most common procedure done to treat gastrointestinal perforations was primary closure, resection and anastomosis, appendectomy and stoma formation. However, small sample size and short follow up period were the limitations of the present study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Kausik Chaudhuri ◽  
Anindita Chakrabarti ◽  
Joht Singh Chandan ◽  
Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay

Abstract Background The approved COVID-19 vaccines have shown great promise in reducing disease transmission and severity of outcomes. However, the success of the COVID-19 vaccine rollout is dependent on public acceptance and willingness to be vaccinated. In this study, we aim to examine how the attitude towards public sector officials and the government impact vaccine willingness. The secondary aim is to understand the impact of ethnicity on vaccine-willingness after we explicitly account for trust in public institutions. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from a UK population based longitudinal household survey (Understanding Society COVID-19 study, Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study) between April 2020-January 2021. Data from 22,421 participants in Waves 6 and 7 of the study were included after excluding missing data. Demographic details in addition to previous survey responses relating to public sector/governmental trust were included as covariates in the main analysis. A logit model was produced to describe the association between public sector/governmental mistrust and the willingness for vaccination with interaction terms included to account for ethnicity/socio-economic status. Results In support of existing literature, we identified those from BAME groups were more likely to be unwilling to take the COVID-19 vaccine. We found that positive opinions towards public sector officials (OR 2.680: 95% CI 1.888 – 3.805) and the UK government (OR 3.400; 95% CI 2.454—4.712) led to substantive increase in vaccine willingness. Most notably we identified this effect to vary across ethnicity and socio-economic status with those from South Asian background (OR 4.513; 95% CI 1.012—20.123) and possessing a negative attitude towards public officials and the government being the most unwilling to be vaccinated. Conclusions These findings suggests that trust in public sector officials play a key factor in the low vaccination rates particularly seen in at-risk groups. Given the additional morbidity/mortality risk posed by COVID-19 to those from lower socio-economic or ethnic minority backgrounds, there needs to be urgent public health action to review how to tailor health promotion advice given to these groups and examine methods to improve trust in public sector officials and the government.

Elisabet Sánchez-Rodríguez ◽  
Alexandra Ferreira-Valente ◽  
Filipa Pimenta ◽  
Antonella Ciaramella ◽  
Jordi Miró

Research has shown that the confinement measures implemented to curb the spread of COVID-19 can have negative effects on people’s lives at multiple levels. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to better understand the mental, physical, and socio-economic status of adults living in Spain during the late stages of the state of emergency caused by COVID-19. Five hundred and forty-four individuals responded to an online survey between 3 June and 30 July 2020. They were asked to report data about their mental and physical health, financial situation, and satisfaction with the information received about the pandemic. Means, percentages, t-test, ANOVAs, and logistic regressions were computed. A third of the participants reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress, and worries about their health and the future. Participants also described mild levels of fatigue and pain during lockdown (66%), and a reduction in household income (39%). Respondents that were female, younger, single, and with lower levels of education reported experiencing a greater impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data showed that the negative effects of lockdown were present in the late stages of the state of emergency. The findings can be used to contribute to the development of programs to prevent or mitigate the negative impact of confinement measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Fiona C. Ingleby ◽  
Laura M. Woods ◽  
Iain M. Atherton ◽  
Matthew Baker ◽  
Lucy Elliss-Brookes ◽  

Abstract Background People living in more deprived areas of high-income countries have lower cancer survival than those in less deprived areas. However, associations between individual-level socio-economic circumstances and cancer survival are relatively poorly understood. Moreover, few studies have addressed contextual effects, where associations between individual-level socio-economic status and cancer survival vary depending on area-based deprivation. Methods Using 9276 individual-level observations from a longitudinal study in England and Wales, we examined the association with cancer survival of area-level deprivation and individual-level occupation, education, and income, for colorectal, prostate and breast cancer patients aged 20–99 at diagnosis. With flexible parametric excess hazard models, we estimated excess mortality across individual-level and area-level socio-economic variables and investigated contextual effects. Results For colorectal cancers, we found evidence of an association between education and cancer survival in men with Excess Hazard Ratio (EHR) = 0.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.60;1.08 comparing “degree-level qualification and higher” to “no qualification” and EHR = 0.74 [0.56;0.97] comparing “apprenticeships and vocational qualification” to “no qualification”, adjusted on occupation and income; and between occupation and cancer survival for women with EHR = 0.77 [0.54;1.10] comparing “managerial/professional occupations” to “manual/technical,” and EHR = 0.81 [0.63;1.06] comparing “intermediate” to “manual/technical”, adjusted on education and income. For breast cancer in women, we found evidence of an association with income (EHR = 0.52 [0.29;0.95] for the highest income quintile compared to the lowest, adjusted on education and occupation), while for prostate cancer, all three individual-level socio-economic variables were associated to some extent with cancer survival. We found contextual effects of area-level deprivation on survival inequalities between occupation types for breast and prostate cancers, suggesting wider individual-level inequalities in more deprived areas compared to least deprived areas. Individual-level income inequalities for breast cancer were more evident than an area-level differential, suggesting that area-level deprivation might not be the most effective measure of inequality for this cancer. For colorectal cancer in both sexes, we found evidence suggesting area- and individual-level inequalities, but no evidence of contextual effects. Conclusions Findings highlight that both individual and contextual effects contribute to inequalities in cancer outcomes. These insights provide potential avenues for more effective policy and practice.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 291
Shiqi Lin ◽  
Yuan Zhang ◽  
Lifang Jiang ◽  
Jiajia Li ◽  
Jian Chai ◽  

Background: Maternal vitamin D deficiency might generate adverse reproductive outcomes, and socio-economic inequalities in micronutrient-related diseases have often been found. This study aimed to explore the interactive effects of maternal vitamin D status and socio-economic status (SES) on risk of spontaneous abortion. Methods: A population-based case–control study was conducted including 293 women with spontaneous abortion and 498 control women in December 2009 and January, 2010 in Henan Province, China. Information on pregnancy outcomes, maternal demographic, lifestyle and exposure factors and blood samples were collected at the same time. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL. SES index was constructed with principal component analysis by aggregating women’s and their husbands’ education level and occupation, and household income and expenditure. Interactive effects were assessed on a multiplicative scale with ratio of the odds ratio (ROR). Results: Compared to those with high SES and vitamin D sufficiency, women with vitamin D deficiency and low SES index had an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (aOR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.23–3.23). The ROR was 2.06 (95% CI: 1.04–4.10), indicating a significant positive multiplicative interaction. Conclusions: Maternal low SES may strengthen the effect of vitamin D deficiency exposure on spontaneous abortion risk in this Chinese population.

2022 ◽  
Yilan Ge ◽  
Lihua Zhang ◽  
Yan Gao ◽  
Bin Wang ◽  
Xin Zheng ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 000486742110683
Sandro Sperandei ◽  
Andrew Page ◽  
Piumee Bandara ◽  
Arianne Reis ◽  
Rowena Saheb ◽  

Objectives: This study investigated trends in hospital-treated self-harm and hospital presenting suicidal ideation in the period before and after COVID-19 public health responses by key socio-demographic groups among those presenting to hospitals in the Western Sydney (Australia) population catchment. Methods: Emergency department presentations for the period January 2016 to June 2021 were used to specify a series of interrupted time-series models to compare the observed and expected event rates of (1) hospital-treated self-harm and (2) hospital presenting suicidal ideation in the period following the onset of COVID-19 public health measures in March 2020. Rate differences between observed and expected rates in the post-implementation period were also estimated in models stratified by sex, age group, country of birth and socio-economic status. Results: There was no significant increase in hospital-treated self-harm in the period post-implementation of public health orders (March 2020) compared to the previous period, although there were lower than expected rates of emergency department presentations among non-Australian-born males, males aged 0–14 years and 25–44 years, and females aged 45–64 years. In contrast, there was a significant increase in hospital presenting suicidal ideation, particularly among women (rate difference per 100,000 = 3.91, 95% confidence interval = [1.35, 6.48]) and those aged 15–24 years (both males and females, rate differences ranging from 8.91 to 19.04), and among those residing in lower socio-economic status areas (both males and females, rate differences ranging from 0.90 to 2.33). Conclusion: There was no increase in hospital-treated self-harm rates in the 15 months post-implementation of COVID-19 public health orders in Western Sydney; however, there was a significant increase in hospital presenting suicidal ideation. The limited change in suicidal behaviour may reflect the success of social and economic supports during this period, the benefits of which may have been different for young people, and those of lower socio-economic status.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
V. Deepa ◽  
R. Sujatha ◽  
Jitendra Mohan

AbstractTechnology adoption for school education further gained momentum during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the challenges and strategies of children belonging to the less privileged (we use ‘privileged’ in the article to identify those enjoying a standard of living or rights as majority of people in the society) families are different from those of the children who come from socio-economically better-off (privileged) backgrounds. The purpose of this research is to explore the experiences of children with school education and using technology for learning. Past studies have highlighted the use of internet and communication technologies as a promising solution to provide quality school education in the remotest parts of the country. Previous research has also ascertained that the socio-economic status divide has no significant impact on the students’ ability to learn using technology. Children can use technology to learn irrespective of their socio-economic status and background. We conducted this exploratory qualitative study from a constructivist grounded theory perspective. A purposive sample of 14 students (9 from underprivileged and 5 from privileged family backgrounds) in the age group of 6–14 years, was used and unstructured interviews were conducted. We analysed the data using constructivist grounded theory methodology. We found that the experiences of privileged and underprivileged children differed with respect to access to internet, affordability of ICT device, quality teachers, parental support, and financial sponsorship. However, the experiences and perspectives of the children were found to be similar with respect to personal ownership of mobile phone device for unlimited time at own disposal, self-directed learning and having a trusted study advisor. The findings may be useful to policy makers and EdTech firms to build strategies and solutions for effective implementation of universal school education in the country.

2022 ◽  
Vol 131 ◽  
pp. 01002
Nadezda Kuligina ◽  
Signe Dobelniece

The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences of adult children in manifestations of emotional closeness and its influence on frequency of contacts with their parents, as well as impact of the socio-economic status of parents on manifesting solidarity by the adult child. The participants of the research were 410 adult children, aged 18–62, living in Latvia, and with at least one parent alive. The results of the research showed that significant differences exist in manifestations of emotional closeness and frequency of contacts with parents by gender of a child and the socio-economic status of parents. Adult daughters more often meet and contact their parents than sons do. Emotional closeness and frequency of contacts correlate with providing functional help to their parents. Normative obligations of adult children to show care and provide help to their parents have been stipulated by the legislation of Latvia; however, the results of the research showed that parents who are emotionally close to their children received significantly greater help and support.

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