Third Generation Cephalosporins
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kokab Jabeen ◽  
Sidrah Saleem ◽  
Faiqa Arshad ◽  
Zill-e-Huma ◽  
Shah Jahan ◽  
...  

Abstract Typhoid fever is a significant health problem in developing countries like Pakistan. Salmonella Typhi the causative agent of typhoid has developed resistant to almost all recommended antibiotics. Emergence of resistance to third generation cephalosporins has further complicated the situation and such strains are called as extensively drug resistant (XDR) Salmonella Typhi. Currently only available options are azithromycin and cabapenems. Recently few reports of azithromycin resistance have emerged from countries like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Nepal. As azithromycin is the only oral option available to treat XDR Typhoid, development of resistance may change treatment strategy altogether from out patient management to hospitalization of every patient. This may increase the burden on already weak health care system of countries like Pakistan. So there is dire need to look for the alternative treatment options. Manuka honey is well known for its therapeutic potential against wide range of bacteria including Salmonella Typhimurium. In this study 3 azithromycin resistant isolates were isolated and identified using disc diffusion, E-test and broth micro dilution methods and antibacterial activity, MIC and MBC of manuka honey was performed by agar well diffusion assay and broth micro dilution assay respectively. Manuka honey manifested significant antibacterial activity against all test isolates with zone of inhibition ranging from 7.3mm to 7.5mm, MIC and MBC values were between 10 to 15% v/v Here, we conclude that Manuka honey possess potent antibacterial activity and might be used as an alternative treatment option against azithromycin resistant XDR Typhid. However, further clinical trials are mandatory to validate our initial findings.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryuichi Nakano ◽  
Yuki Yamada ◽  
Akiyo Nakano ◽  
Yuki Suzuki ◽  
Kai Saito ◽  
...  

Various carbapenemases have been identified in the Enterobacteriaceae. However, the induction and corresponding regulator genes of carbapenemase NmcA has rarely been detected in the Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC). The NmcA-positive isolate ECC NR1491 was first detected in Japan in 2013. It was characterized and its induction system elucidated by evaluating its associated regulator genes nmcR, ampD, and ampR. The isolate was highly resistant to all β-lactams except for third generation cephalosporins (3GC). Whole-genome analysis revealed that blaNmcA was located on a novel 29-kb putatively mobile element called EludIMEX-1 inserted into the chromosome. The inducibility of β-lactamase activity by various agents was evaluated. Cefoxitin was confirmed as a strong concentration-independent β-lactamase inducer. In contrast, carbapenems induced β-lactamase in a concentration-dependent manner. All selected 3GC-mutants harboring substitutions on ampD (as ampR and nmcR were unchanged) were highly resistant to 3GC. The ampD mutant strain NR3901 presented with a 700 × increase in β-lactamase activity with or without induction. Similar upregulation was also observed for ampC and nmcA. NR1491 (pKU412) was obtained by transforming the ampR mutant (135Asn) clone plasmid whose expression increased by ∼100×. Like NR3901, it was highly resistant to 3GC. Overexpression of ampC, rather than nmcA, may have accounted for the higher MIC in NR1491. The ampR mutant repressed nmcA despite induction and it remains unclear how it stimulates nmcA transcription via induction. Future experiments should analyze the roles of nmcR mutant strains.


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 74
Author(s):  
Ana Tomas ◽  
Saleh Aljadeeah

This study aimed to determine and describe the prevalence of combination antibiotics dispensed in outpatients with health insurance in Syria. Data on all dispensed medicines between June 2018 and May 2019 for 81,314 adults were obtained, and medicines belonging to the J01 group of the World Health Organization (WHO) anatomical therapeutic classification (ATC) were included in the analysis. Prescriptions were stratified according to the number of antibiotics, age, and sex. Antibiotic utilization was expressed as the number of prescriptions per 1000 persons per year. Out of 59,404 prescriptions for antibiotics, 14.98% contained antibiotic combinations, distributed to 22.49% of the patients. The prevalence of dispensing antibiotic combinations was higher in female patients (23.00%), and the youngest (18–30 years, 26.19%) and oldest age groups (>70 years, 25.19%). The antibiotics most commonly combined were co-amoxiclav, second- and third-generation cephalosporins, and macrolides. Over 60% of the combinations contained ceftriaxone alone or in combination with sulbactam. The present study shows an alarmingly widespread prescription of antibiotic combinations, posing a risk to global health by promoting resistance development.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xenia Vázquez ◽  
Vanesa García ◽  
Javier Fernández ◽  
Margarita Bances ◽  
María de Toro ◽  
...  

Colistin is a last-resort antibiotic in fighting severe infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram negative pathogens in hospitals. Zoonotic bacteria acquire colistin resistance in animal reservoirs and mediate its spread along the food chain. This is the case of non-typhoid serovars of Salmonella enterica. Colistin-resistant S. enterica in foods represents a threat to human health. Here, we assessed the prevalence of colistin-resistance in food-borne isolates of S. enterica (2014–2019; Asturias, Spain), and established the genetic basis and transferability of this resistance. Five out of 231 isolates tested (2.2%) were resistant to colistin. Four of them, belonging to the European monophasic ST34 clone of S. Typhimurium, were characterized in the present study. They were collected from pork or pork and beef meat-derived products, either in 2015 (three isolates) or 2019 (one isolate). Molecular typing with XbaI-PFGE and plasmid profiling revealed distinct patterns for each isolate, even though two of the 2015 isolates derived from the same sample. The MICs of colistin ranged from 8 to 16 mg/L. All isolates carried the mcr-1.1 gene located on conjugative plasmids of the incompatibility groups IncX4 (2015 isolates) or IncHI2 (2019 isolate). Apart from colistin resistance, the four isolates carried chromosomal genes conferring resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline [blaTEM–1, strA-strB, sul2, and tet(B)] and heavy metals, including copper and silver (silESRCFBAGP and pcoGE1ABCDRSE2), arsenic (arsRSD2A2BCA1D1) ± mercury (merEDACPTR), which are characteristically associated with the European ST34 monophasic clone. The 2019 isolate was also resistant to other antibiotics, comprising third generation cephalosporins and cephamycins. The latter phenotype was conferred by the blaCMY–2 gene located on an IncI1-I(α)-ST2 plasmid. Results in the present study identified meat-derived products as a reservoir of a highly successful clone harboring transferable plasmids which confer resistance to colistin and other clinically important antibiotics. An important reduction in the number of food-borne S. enterica detected during the period of the study, together with the low frequency of colistin resistance, underlines the success of One Health initiatives, such as those implemented at the UE, to control zoonotic bacteria along the food chain and to halt the spread of antimicrobial resistance.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maneerat Somsri ◽  
Wilawan Oransathid ◽  
Brian Vesely ◽  
Mariusz Wojnarski ◽  
Samandra Demons ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT Introduction The effective dual antibiotics ceftriaxone (CRO) and azithromycin (AZM) have successfully treated Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infection, however, the CRO- and AZM-resistant strains have been sporadically detected globally and in Thailand. Furthermore, there are no currently antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the GC isolates obtained from soldiers reported in Thailand. Hence, this is the first study to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of GC isolates obtained from predominately soldiers who seeking care at Military Camp Hospitals, in Thailand from 2014 to 2020. Materials and Methods A total of 624 symptomatic gonococcal samples were received from 10 military hospitals during 2014-2020. They were collected from urethral swabs and inoculated into selective media. The suspected GC isolates were subcultured and presumptively identified using conventional microbiology techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by Etest to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (μg/mL) against AZM, benzylpenicillin, cefepime, cefixime, ceftriaxone (CRO), ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin, and tetracycline using the criteria outlined in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. This study was approved by Institutional Review Board, Royal Thai Army Medical Department under protocol number S036b/56 and Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and Silver Spring, MD under protocol number WR #2039. Results A total of 624 samples were collected from symptomatic gonococcal infectious patients with 91.5% (571/624) of samples obtained from soldiers. Of those, 78% (488/624) were identified as GC and 92% (449/488) of them were isolated from soldiers. All GC samples collected were susceptible to CRO (first-line treatment) with only one GC isolate identified as non-susceptible to cefepime and three isolates identified as non-susceptible to AZM. Conclusion The recommended dual treatment of GC infections with CRO and AZM is currently an effective empirical treatment for patients who are seeking care at military hospitals in Thailand. Nevertheless, cefepime is a fourth-generation cephalosporin with documented high activity against GC strains equal to other “third-generation” cephalosporins such as CRO. Due to the active duty of military personnel, they concerned about the confidentiality and frequently seek treatment at civilian clinics. Additionally, due to the availability of antibiotics over the counter in Thailand, many choose the option to self-medicate without a physician’s prescription. These could be subsequently driven the gradual increase of multidrug-resistant gonococcal strains throughout the country. Thus, the GC surveillance would be needed for further Force Health Protection and public health authorities in response to the drug-resistant GC threats.


2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 164-169
Author(s):  
Diyan Ajeng Rossetyowati ◽  
Ika Puspitasari ◽  
Tri Murti Andayani ◽  
Titik Nuryastuti

Inadequate antibiotic therapy for meningitis and bacterial encephalitis is one of the factors that can jeopardize patient safety and turn into a public health issue in a number of nations, including Indonesia. This phenomena has the potential to raise health-care expenses, which should be avoided in the era of the JKN program's implementation. The goal of this research was to describe the profile of antibiotic use and cost in hospitalized meningitis and bacterial encephalitis patients. This cross-sectional observational study took place from January to December 2019. As study materials, patient medical records and billing data were employed. To enhance the data obtained, confirmation with medical and pharmaceutical personnel is required. Antibiotic use and expenditures were described using descriptive analysis. A total of 71 patients, both children and adults, met the study's inclusion criteria. Antibiotics were given to all of the patients, and the results revealed that third generation cephalosporins (49.375%) were the most commonly recommended antibiotic class, either alone or in combination. Antibiotic use receives 46.94% of total medication funding. According to the length of stay category, the majority of patients (45.99 %) were hospitalized for 8-14 days consecutively with antibiotic medication. Antibiotics, which are typically administered to patients with meningitis and bacterial encephalitis, had no effect on the length of stay in the hospital. Antibiotic prescriptions must be carefully reviewed at top referrel hospital, taking into account the local germ map.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jane Hawkey ◽  
Kelly L Wyres ◽  
Louise M Judd ◽  
Taylor Harshegyi ◽  
Luke Blakeway ◽  
...  

Background Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, often mediated by extended–spectrum beta–lactamases (ESBLs), is a considerable issue in hospital-associated infections as few drugs remain for treatment. ESBL genes are often located on large plasmids that transfer horizontally between strains and species of Enterobacteriaceae and frequently confer resistance to additional drug classes. While plasmid transmission is recognised to occur in the hospital setting, the frequency and impact of plasmid transmission on infection burden, compared to ESBL+ strain transmission, is not well understood. Methods We sequenced the genomes of clinical and carriage isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae species complex from a year long hospital surveillance study to investigate ESBL burden and plasmid transmission in an Australian hospital. Long term persistence of a key transmitted ESBL+ plasmid was investigated via sequencing of ceftriaxone resistant isolates during four years of follow–up, beginning three years after the initial study. Results We found 25 distinct ESBL plasmids. One (Plasmid A, carrying blaCTX–M–15 in an IncF backbone similar to pKPN–307) was transmitted at least four times into different Klebsiella species/lineages and was responsible for half of all ESBL episodes during the initial one-year study period. Three of the Plasmid A–positive strains persisted locally 3–6 years later, and Plasmid A was detected in two additional strain backgrounds. Overall Plasmid A accounted for 21% of ESBL+ infections in the follow–up period. Conclusions Whilst ESBL plasmid transmission events were rare in this setting, they had a significant and sustained impact on the burden of ceftriaxone resistant and multidrug resistant infections.


Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 18
Author(s):  
Elisa Barbieri ◽  
Costanza di Chiara ◽  
Paola Costenaro ◽  
Anna Cantarutti ◽  
Carlo Giaquinto ◽  
...  

Comprehensive data are needed to monitor antibiotic prescribing and inform stewardship. We aimed to evaluate the current antibiotic prescribing patterns, including treatment switching and prolongation, in the paediatric primary care setting in Italy. This database study assessed antibiotic prescriptions retrieved from Pedianet, a paediatric primary care database, from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2018. Descriptive analyses were stratified by diagnosis class, calendar year, and children’s age. Generalized linear Poisson regression was used to assess variation in the prescriptions. In total, 505,927 antibiotic prescriptions were included. From 2012 to 2018, the number of antibiotics per child decreased significantly by 4% yearly from 0.79 in 2012 to 0.62 in 2018. Amoxicillin prescriptions decreased with increasing children’s age, while macrolides and third-generation cephalosporins had the opposite trend. Prescriptions were associated with a diagnosis of upper respiratory infection in 23% of cases, followed by pharyngitis (21%), bronchitis and bronchiolitis (12%), and acute otitis media (12%). Eight percent of treatment episodes were prolonged or switched class, mostly represented by co-amoxiclav, macrolides, and third-generation cephalosporins. Our findings report an overall decrease in antibiotic prescriptions, but pre-schoolers are still receiving more than one antibiotic yearly, and broad-spectrum antibiotics prescription rates remain the highest.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Misa Takahashi ◽  
Hideharu Hagiya ◽  
Tsukasa Higashionna ◽  
Yasuhiro Nakano ◽  
Kota Sato ◽  
...  

Abstract To promote antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and appropriate antibiotic use, we studied antimicrobial prescription rates for uncomplicated cystitis, a common outpatient disease requiring antibiotic treatment in Japan. This multicenter retrospective study was performed from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2020, targeting outpatients aged ≥20 years whose medical records revealed International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes suggesting uncomplicated cystitis (N300). We divided eligible cases into two age groups (20–49 years and ≥50 years) and defined broad-spectrum antimicrobials as fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins, and faropenem. Primary and secondary outcomes were defined as the prescription rates of broad-spectrum antimicrobials for the disease and the association of antimicrobial types with recurrence. The data of 1,445 patients were collected and that of 902 patients were analyzed. The overall proportion of broad-spectrum antimicrobial prescriptions was 69.1%. The broad-spectrum agents were prescribed frequently in the older group, male patients, and internal medicine. Recurrence was observed in 37 (4.1%) cases, and age, sex, or antimicrobial types were not associated with the recurrence. Hence, approximately two-thirds of antimicrobials prescribed for uncomplicated cystitis were broad-spectrum agents. Administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobials was not associated with the prevention of the recurrence of cystitis.


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