metabolic health
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Martin Færch Andersen ◽  
Julie Midtgaard ◽  
Eik Dybboe Bjerre

Men diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer experience severe adverse effects on quality of life (QoL) and metabolic health, some of which may be preventable or reversible with exercise, the benefits of which healthcare providers and patients increasingly acknowledge, though existing evidence on its effects varies in significance and magnitude. We aimed to review the effect of exercise on QoL and metabolic health in a broad prostate cancer population. A systematic search was conducted in nine databases and eligible trials were included in the meta-analytic procedure. All outcomes were stratified into aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and a combination of both. The review identified 33 randomised controlled trials (2567 participants) eligible for inclusion. Exercise had a borderline small positive effect on cancer-specific QoL (standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.01–0.22), and a moderate to large effect on cardiovascular fitness (SMD = 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.59) with aerobic exercise being the superior modality (SMD = 0.60, 95% CI 0.29–0.90). A positive significant effect was seen in lower body strength, whole-body fat mass, general mental health, and blood pressure. No significant effect was seen in fatigue, lean body mass, and general physical health. We thereby conclude that exercise is effective in improving metabolic health in men diagnosed with prostate cancer, with aerobic exercise as the superior modality. The effect of exercise on QoL was small and not mediated by choice of exercise modality.

BMC Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Samantha M. Solon-Biet ◽  
Lucy Griffiths ◽  
Sophie Fosh ◽  
David G. Le Couteur ◽  
Stephen J. Simpson ◽  

Abstract Background The role of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their effect on metabolic health is complex. How dietary BCAA levels and their interaction with background nutrition affect health is unclear. Here, we used meta-analysis and meta-regression, together with the nutritional modelling, to analyse the results of rodent studies that increased the level of dietary BCAAs and measured circulating levels, outcomes related to metabolic health, body mass and food intake. Results Across all studies, increasing dietary BCAAs resulted in increased levels of circulating BCAAs. These effects, however, were heavily moderated by background dietary levels whereby on high BCAA diets, further increases were not reflected in the blood. Impaired glucose tolerance was associated with elevated dietary BCAAs, with the greatest effect occurring with a simultaneous increase in total protein intake. Effects of dietary BCAAs on plasma glucose, insulin, or HOMA emerged only when dietary macronutrient background was considered. We found that elevated dietary BCAAs increases % body fat, with largest increases in adiposity occurring when BCAAs are increased on a high protein, low carbohydrate dietary background. Finally, we found that increased dietary BCAAs were associated with increased food intake when the background diet was low in BCAAs. Conclusion Our data highlights the interaction between BCAAs and background nutrition. We show that the effects of BCAAs on metabolic health cannot be studied in isolation but must be considered as part of complex mixture of dietary components.

2022 ◽  
Emil Jørsboe ◽  
Mette Korre Andersen ◽  
Line Skotte ◽  
Frederik Filip Stæger ◽  
Nils Joakim Kaas Færgeman ◽  

Background: The common Arctic specific LDLR p.G137S variant was recently shown to be associated with elevated lipid levels. Motivated by this we aimed to investigate the effect of p.G137S on metabolic health, and cardiovascular disease risk among Greenlanders to quantify its impact on the population. Methods: In a population based Greenlandic cohort (n=5063), we tested for associations between the p.G137S variant and metabolic health traits as well as cardiovascular disease risk based on registry data. Additionally, we explored the variant's impact on plasma NMR measured lipoprotein concentration and composition in another Greenlandic cohort (n=1629). Results: 29.5% of the individuals in the cohort carried at least one copy of the p.G137S risk allele. Furthermore, 25.4% of the heterozygous and 54.7% of the homozygous carriers had high levels (>4.9 mmol/L) of LDL cholesterol, which is above the diagnostic level for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Moreover, p.G137S was associated with an overall atherosclerotic lipid profile, and increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (HR (95% CI), 1.51 (1.18-1.92), P=0.00096), peripheral artery disease (1.69 (1.01-2.82), P=0.046), and coronary operations (1.78 (1.21-2.62), P=0.0035). Conclusions: Due to its high frequency and large effect sizes, p.G137S has a marked population-level impact, increasing the risk of FH and cardiovascular disease for up to 30% of the Greenlandic population. Thus, p.G137S is a potential marker for early intervention in Arctic populations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Emma C. E. Meessen ◽  
Håvard Andresen ◽  
Thomas van Barneveld ◽  
Anne van Riel ◽  
Egil I. Johansen ◽  

Background: Generally, food intake occurs in a three-meal per 24 h fashion with in-between meal snacking. As such, most humans spend more than ∼ 12–16 h per day in the postprandial state. It may be reasoned from an evolutionary point of view, that the human body is physiologically habituated to less frequent meals. Metabolic flexibility (i.e., reciprocal changes in carbohydrate and fatty acid oxidation) is a characteristic of metabolic health and is reduced by semi-continuous feeding. The effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) on metabolic parameters and physical performance in humans are equivocal.Methods: To investigate the effect of TRF on metabolism and physical performance in free-living healthy lean individuals, we compared the effects of eucaloric feeding provided by a single meal (22/2) vs. three meals per day in a randomized crossover study. We included 13 participants of which 11 (5 males/6 females) completed the study: age 31.0 ± 1.7 years, BMI 24.0 ± 0.6 kg/m2 and fat mass (%) 24.0 ± 0.6 (mean ± SEM). Participants consumed all the calories needed for a stable weight in either three meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) or one meal per day between 17:00 and 19:00 for 11 days per study period.Results: Eucaloric meal reduction to a single meal per day lowered total body mass (3 meals/day –0.5 ± 0.3 vs. 1 meal/day –1.4 ± 0.3 kg, p = 0.03), fat mass (3 meals/day –0.1 ± 0.2 vs. 1 meal/day –0.7 ± 0.2, p = 0.049) and increased exercise fatty acid oxidation (p < 0.001) without impairment of aerobic capacity or strength (p > 0.05). Furthermore, we found lower plasma glucose concentrations during the second half of the day during the one meal per day intervention (p < 0.05).Conclusion: A single meal per day in the evening lowers body weight and adapts metabolic flexibility during exercise via increased fat oxidation whereas physical performance was not affected.

Gut ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. gutjnl-2021-326298
Menglei Shuai ◽  
Yuanqing Fu ◽  
Hai-li Zhong ◽  
Wanglong Gou ◽  
Zengliang Jiang ◽  

ObjectiveThe human gut fungal community, known as the mycobiome, plays a fundamental role in the gut ecosystem and health. Here we aimed to investigate the determinants and long-term stability of gut mycobiome among middle-aged and elderly adults. We further explored the interplay between gut fungi and bacteria on metabolic health.DesignThe present study included 1244 participants from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study. We characterised the long-term stability and determinants of the human gut mycobiome, especially long-term habitual dietary consumption. The comprehensive multiomics analyses were performed to investigate the ecological links between gut bacteria, fungi and faecal metabolome. Finally, we examined whether the interaction between gut bacteria and fungi could modulate the metabolic risk.ResultsThe gut fungal composition was temporally stable and mainly determined by age, long-term habitual diet and host physiological states. Specifically, compared with middle-aged individuals, Blastobotrys and Agaricomycetes spp were depleted, while Malassezia was enriched in the elderly. Dairy consumption was positively associated with Saccharomyces but inversely associated with Candida. Notably, Saccharomycetales spp interacted with gut bacterial diversity to influence insulin resistance. Bidirectional mediation analyses indicated that bacterial function or faecal histidine might causally mediate an impact of Pichia on blood cholesterol.ConclusionWe depict the sociodemographic and dietary determinants of human gut mycobiome in middle-aged and elderly individuals, and further reveal that the gut mycobiome may be closely associated with the host metabolic health through regulating gut bacterial functions and metabolites.

2022 ◽  
Gwendoline Astre ◽  
Tehila Atlan ◽  
Uri Goshtchevsky ◽  
Kobi Shapira ◽  
Adi Oron-Gottesman ◽  

The loss of energy homeostasis seen during aging, is causally linked to multiple age-related pathologies. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) directly senses cellular energy levels, which are reflected in the ratio between AMP:ATP. However, the genetic regulation of vertebrate aging by the AMPK pathway remains poorly understood. Here, we manipulate ATP production by mutating APRT, a key enzyme in AMP biosynthesis, and extend vertebrate lifespan in a male-specific manner. Using a multi-omics approach, we demonstrate that the APRT mutation restores metabolic plasticity, and identify a distinct transcriptional signature linking mitochondria with the sex-related differences in longevity. Accordingly, APRT mutant cells display a reduction in mitochondrial functions and ATP levels, and an increase in AMPK activity, resembling a persistent state of energy starvation. In-vivo, a fasting-like response was observed exclusively in male mutants, including resistance to a high-fat diet. Finally, intermittent fasting eliminated the longevity benefits mediated by the APRT mutation in males. Together, these data identify AMP biosynthesis as a sex-specific mediator of vertebrate longevity and metabolic health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 695
Angelos Dimas ◽  
Anastasia Politi ◽  
George Papaioannou ◽  
Thomas M. Barber ◽  
Martin O. Weickert ◽  

Increased maternal food intake is considered a normal pregnancy adjustment. However, the overavailability of nutrients may lead to dysregulated fetal development and increased adiposity, with long-lasting effects on offspring in later life. Several gut-hormone molecules regulate maternal appetite, with both their orexigenic and anorectic effects being in a state of sensitive equilibrium. The aim of this manuscript is to systematically review literature on the effects of maternal gut-hormone molecules on fetal growth and metabolism, birth weight and the later metabolic health of offspring. Maternal serum ghrelin, leptin, IGF-1 and GLP-1 appear to influence fetal growth; however, a lack of consistent and strong correlations of maternal appetite axis hormones with birth weight and the concomitant correlation with fetal and birth waist circumference may suggest that these molecules primarily mediate fetal energy deposition mechanisms, preparing the fetus for survival after birth. Dysregulated intrauterine environments seem to have detrimental, sex-dependent effects on fetal energy stores, affecting not only fetal growth, fat mass deposition and birth weight, but also future metabolic and endocrine wellbeing of offspring.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Magdalena Prochazkova ◽  
Eva Budinska ◽  
Marek Kuzma ◽  
Helena Pelantova ◽  
Jaromir Hradecky ◽  

Background and Aim: Plant-based diets are associated with potential health benefits, but the contribution of gut microbiota remains to be clarified. We aimed to identify differences in key features of microbiome composition and function with relevance to metabolic health in individuals adhering to a vegan vs. omnivore diet.Methods: This cross-sectional study involved lean, healthy vegans (n = 62) and omnivore (n = 33) subjects. We assessed their glucose and lipid metabolism and employed an integrated multi-omics approach (16S rRNA sequencing, metabolomics profiling) to compare dietary intake, metabolic health, gut microbiome, and fecal, serum, and urine metabolomes.Results: The vegans had more favorable glucose and lipid homeostasis profiles than the omnivores. Long-term reported adherence to a vegan diet affected only 14.8% of all detected bacterial genera in fecal microbiome. However, significant differences in vegan and omnivore metabolomes were observed. In feces, 43.3% of all identified metabolites were significantly different between the vegans and omnivores, such as amino acid fermentation products p-cresol, scatole, indole, methional (lower in the vegans), and polysaccharide fermentation product short- and medium-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, MCFAs), and their derivatives (higher in the vegans). Vegan serum metabolome differed markedly from the omnivores (55.8% of all metabolites), especially in amino acid composition, such as low BCAAs, high SCFAs (formic-, acetic-, propionic-, butyric acids), and dimethylsulfone, the latter two being potential host microbiome co-metabolites. Using a machine-learning approach, we tested the discriminative power of each dataset. Best results were obtained for serum metabolome (accuracy rate 91.6%).Conclusion: While only small differences in the gut microbiota were found between the groups, their metabolic activity differed substantially. In particular, we observed a significantly different abundance of fermentation products associated with protein and carbohydrate intakes in the vegans. Vegans had significantly lower abundances of potentially harmful (such as p-cresol, lithocholic acid, BCAAs, aromatic compounds, etc.) and higher occurrence of potentially beneficial metabolites (SCFAs and their derivatives).

Mohammad Sediq Sahrai ◽  
Inge Huybrechts ◽  
Carine Biessy ◽  
Sabina Rinaldi ◽  
Pietro Ferrari ◽  

Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause more than 70% of deaths worldwide and share modifiable risk factors including obesity and metabolic abnormalities. Over the past 15 years, many changes in lifestyle, dietary patterns, physical activity, and socioeconomic status have been observed in the Afghan population. This study aims to investigate which specific lifestyle factors, dietary patterns, and characteristics of Westernization are associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese and with poor metabolic health in the Afghan population. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted where a total of 729 male and female participants were recruited. Face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measurements were conducted by trained health staff using standardized questionnaires which included information on socio-demographic and housing characteristics, income, occupation, ethnicity, personal and family medical history, stress, anthropometry, diet, and physical activity. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) was used to estimate body composition, including overall body fatness. Physical activity was measured using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). For a comprehensive assessment of dietary intake, a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specific to the Afghan population was developed which included all local food items relevant to the population. Lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured in a local laboratory. Biospecimens were collected using dried blood spots (DBS) and dried stool cards to perform microbiome and biomarker-based research. Discussion This is the first study which will assess dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, and their association with obesity and metabolic health in Afghanistan. Such a study will aid the development of dietary and lifestyle guidelines in Afghanistan which will promote better health and educate people to make healthy food choices. The findings will also help in designing and implementing effective public health strategies to promote a healthy lifestyle and prevent the epidemic of overweight and obesity, and, hence, reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in the region.

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